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Author Kempinger, L.; Dittmann, R.; Rieger, D.; Helfrich-Forster, C.
Title The nocturnal activity of fruit flies exposed to artificial moonlight is partly caused by direct light effects on the activity level that bypass the endogenous clock Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume (down) 26 Issue 2 Pages 151-166
Keywords ARNTL Transcription Factors; Animals; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drosophila melanogaster/*physiology; *Light; *Moon; Motor Activity/*physiology; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Period Circadian Proteins; Photoperiod; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
Abstract Artificial moonlight was recently shown to shift the endogenous clock of fruit flies and make them nocturnal. To test whether this nocturnal activity is partly due to masking effects of light, we exposed the clock-mutants per(01), tim(01), per(01);tim(01), cyc(01), and Clk(JRK) to light/dark and light/dim-light cycles and determined the activity level during the day and night. We found that under moonlit nights, all clock mutants shifted their activity significantly into the night, suggesting that this effect is independent of the clock. We also recorded the flies under continuous artificial moonlight and darkness to judge the effect of dim constant light on the activity level. All mutants, except Clk(JRK) flies, were significantly more active under artificial moonlight conditions than under complete darkness. Unexpectedly, we found residual rhythmicity of per(01) and especially tim(01) mutants under these conditions, suggesting that TIM and especially PER retained some activity in the absence of its respective partner. Nevertheless, as even the double mutants and the cyc(01) and Clk(JRK) mutants shifted their activity into the night, we conclude that dim light stimulates the activity of fruit flies in a clock-independent manner. Thus, nocturnal light has a twofold influence on flies: it shifts the circadian clock, and it increases nocturnal activity independently of the clock. The latter was also observed in some primates by others and might therefore be of a more general validity.
Address Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19212834 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 113
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Author Dacke, M.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.; Scholtz, C.H.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume (down) 23 Issue 4 Pages 298-300
Keywords Animals; Beetles/*physiology; *Behavior, Animal; Cues; Feces; *Galaxies; Locomotion; Moon; Motor Activity; Orientation/*physiology; *Stars, Celestial; Vision, Ocular/physiology; Milky Way; insects
Abstract When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@biol.lu.se
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23352694 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 116
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume (down) 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors
Abstract In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.
Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17660452 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Dim nighttime illumination accelerates adjustment to timezone travel in an animal model Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume (down) 19 Issue 4 Pages R156-7
Keywords *Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Humans; *Lighting; Mesocricetus; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Time Factors
Abstract Jetlag reflects a mismatch between local and circadian time following rapid timezone travel [1]. Appropriately timed bright light can shift human circadian rhythms but recovery is slow (e.g., 1-2 days per timezone). Most symptoms subside after resynchronization, but chronic jetlag may have enduring negative effects [2], including even accelerated mortality in mice [3]. Melatonin, prescription drugs, and/or exercise may help shift the clock but, like bright light, require complex schedules of application [1]. Thus, there is a need for more efficient and practical treatments for addressing jetlag. In contrast to bright daytime lighting, nighttime conditions have received scant attention. By incorporating more naturalistic nighttime lighting comparable in intensity to dim moonlight, we demonstrate that recovery after simulated jetlag is accelerated when nights are dimly lit rather than completely dark.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19243688 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 152
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Author Finch, D.; Smith, B.R.; Marshall, C.; Coomber, F.G.; Kubasiewicz, L.M.; Anderson, M.; Wright, P.G.R.; Mathews, F.
Title Effects of Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) on European Hedgehog Activity at Supplementary Feeding Stations Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)
Volume (down) 10 Issue 5 Pages in press
Keywords Animals; Erinaceus europaeus; activity pattern; camera trap; citizen science; fragmentation; hedgehogs; light pollution; lightscape; urbanisation
Abstract : Artificial light at night (ALAN) can have negative consequences for a wide range of taxa. However, the effects on nocturnal mammals other than bats are poorly understood. A citizen science camera trapping experiment was therefore used to assess the effect of ALAN on the activity of European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) at supplementary feeding stations in UK gardens. A crossover design was implemented at 33 gardens with two treatments-artificial light and darkness-each of which lasted for one week. The order of treatment depended on the existing lighting regime at the feeding station: dark treatments were applied first at dark feeding stations, whereas light treatments were used first where the station was already illuminated. Although temporal changes in activity patterns in response to the treatments were noted in some individuals, the direction of the effects was not consistent. Similarly, there was no overall impact of ALAN on the presence or feeding activities of hedgehogs in gardens where supplementary feeding stations were present. These findings are somewhat reassuring insofar as they demonstrate no net negative effect on a species thought to be in decline, in scenarios where the animals are already habituated to supplementary feeding. However, further research is needed to examine long-term effects and the effects of lighting on hedgehog prey, reproductive success and predation risk.
Address Mammal Society, London E9 6EJ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32354129 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2904
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