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Author Aubé, M.; Franchomme-Fossé, L.; Robert-Staehler, P.; Houle, V.
Title Light pollution modeling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Proceedings of SPIE 2005 -- Volume 5890, San Diego, California, USA. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5890 Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; aerosol optical depth;  remote sensing; light pollution; artificial skyglow
Abstract Tracking the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is of particular importance in monitoring aerosol contributions to global radiative forcing. Until now, the two standard techniques used for retrieving AOD were; (i) sun photometry, and (ii) satellite based approaches, such as based DDV (Dense Dark Vegetation) inversion algorithms. These methods are only available for use during daylight time since they are based on direct or indirect observation of sunlight. Few attempts have been made to measure AOD behaviour at night. One such method uses spectrally ­ calibrated stars as reference targets but the number of available stars is limited. This is especially true for urban sites where artificial lighting hides most  of these stars. In this research, we  attempt  to provide an alternate method, one  which exploits artificial sky glow or light pollution. This methodology links a 3D light pollution model with in situ light pollution measurements. The basic idea is to adjust an AOD value into the model in order to fit measured light pollution. This method requires an accurate model that includes spatial heterogeneity in lighting angular geometry, in lighting spectral dependence, in ground spectral reflectance and in topography. This model, named ILLUMINA, computes 1st and 2nd order molecular and aerosol scattering, as well as aerosol absorption. These model features represent major improvements to previous light pollution models. Therefore, new possibilities for light pollution studies will arise, many of which are of particular interest to the astronomical community. In this paper we will present a first sensitive study applied to the ILLUMINA model.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 554
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Author Johnson, R.S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E.J.; Miller, S.D.; Reid, J.S.
Title Preliminary investigations toward nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals from the VIIRS Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.
Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 1245-1255
Keywords VIIRS; remote sensing; Suomi NPP; aerosol; optical depth; AERONET; light pollution; measurements
Abstract A great need exists for reliable nighttime aerosol products at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this concept demonstration study, using Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) observations on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, a new method is proposed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical depth (τ) using the contrast between regions with and without artificial surface lights. Evaluation of the retrieved τ values against daytime AERONET data from before and after the overpass of the VIIRS satellite over the Cape Verde, Grand Forks, and Alta Floresta AERONET stations yields a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.71. This study suggests that the VIIRS DNB has the potential to provide useful nighttime aerosol detection and property retrievals.
Address Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
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ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 200
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title Modeling the night-sky radiances and inversion of multi-angle and multi-spectral radiance data Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 139 Issue Pages 35-42
Keywords Sky-glow; Light pollution; Aerosols; Light scattering; Inverse problems
Abstract Information on a city's emission pattern is crucial for any reasonable predictions of night sky radiances. Unfortunately, the bulk radiant intensity distribution as a function of zenith angle is scarcely available for any city throughout the world. Even if the spatial arrangements of urban light fixtures and lamp specifications are known, the cumulative effect on upwardly directed beams is difficult to determine; due to heterogeneity of the ambient environment, reflectance from ground surfaces, arbitrarily scattered obstacles, orography of terrain and many other site specific factors.

The present paper develops a theoretical model and a numerical technique applicable to the retrieval of a City Emission Function (CEF) from the spectral sky radiances measured under clear sky conditions. Mathematically it is an inverse problem that is solved using a regularization algorithm in which the minimization routines penalize non-smooth solutions and the radiant intensity pattern is found subject to regularizing constraints.

When spectral sky radiances are measured at a set of discrete wavelengths or at a set of discrete distances from the monitored light source, both the aerosol optical properties and the CEF can be determined concurrently. One great advantage of this approach is that no a-priori assumptions need to be made concerning aerosol properties, such as aerosol optical depth.

The numerical experiment on synthetically generated city emissions' patterns has proven the functionality of the method presented.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovakia.
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 180
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Bará, S.
Title Aerosol characterization using satellite remote sensing of light pollution sources at night Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 495 Issue 1 Pages L76-L80
Keywords Skyglow; Radiative transfer; Light scattering; Aerosols
Abstract A demanding challenge in atmospheric research is the night-time characterization of aerosols using passive techniques, that is, by extracting information from scattered light that has not been emitted by the observer. Satellite observations of artificial night-time lights have been used to retrieve some basic integral parameters, like the aerosol optical depth. However, a thorough analysis of the scattering processes allows one to obtain substantially more detailed information on aerosol properties. In this letter, we demonstrate a practicable approach for determining the aerosol particle size number distribution function in the air column, based on the measurement of the angular radiance distribution of the scattered light emitted by night- time lights of cities and towns, recorded from low Earth orbit. The method is self-calibrating and does not require the knowledge of the absolute city emissions. The input radiance data are readily available from several spaceborne platforms, like the VIIRS-DNB radiometer onboard the Suomi-NPP satellite.
Address Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska Dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovakia; Miroslav.Kocifaj(at)savba.sk
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Publisher OUP Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 1745-3925 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2910
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Author McHardy, T.M.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J.S.; Miller, S.D.; Hyer, E.J.; Kuehn, R.E.
Title An improved method for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical thickness from the VIIRS Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 5147-5178
Keywords Remote Sensing; Suomi NPP; VIIRS; DNB; VIIRS DNB; aerosol optical thickness; AERONET; lidar; SEAC4RS
Abstract Using Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) data, a method, dubbed the “variance method”, is developed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical thickness (τ) values through the examination of the dispersion of radiance values above an artificial light source. Based on the improvement of a previous algorithm, this updated method derives a semi-quantitative indicator of nighttime τ using artificial light sources. Nighttime τ retrievals from the newly developed method are inter-compared with an interpolated value from late afternoon and early morning ground observations from four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites as well as column-integrated τ from one High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) site at Huntsville, AL during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign, providing full diel coverage. Sensitivity studies are performed to examine the effects of lunar illumination on VIIRS τ retrievals made via the variance method, revealing that lunar contamination may have a smaller impact than previously thought, however the small sample size of this study limits the conclusiveness thus far. VIIRS τ retrievals yield a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.60 and a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of 0.18 when compared against straddling daytime-averaged AERONET τ values. Preliminary results suggest that artificial light sources can be used for estimating regional and global nighttime aerosol distributions in the future.
Address Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
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Publisher European Geosciences Union Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 1867-8610 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1182
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