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Author Jung, K.; Kalko, E.K.
Title Where forest meets urbanization: foraging plasticity of aerial insectivorous bats in an anthropogenically altered environment Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal (up) J. Mammal.
Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 144-153
Keywords animals; flying mammals; acoustic monitoring; anthropogenic influence; artificial light; bat activity; Chiroptera; habitat plasticity; moon
Abstract Given worldwide rapid human population growth resulting in degradation or loss of habitats, it is important to understand how anthropogenic factors affect species presence and activity, and consequently, how well species tolerate or adapt to anthropogenically altered environments. This study, conducted in Panama, focuses on aerial insectivorous bats, a highly mobile and ecologically important, but largely understudied group. Acoustic monitoring was used to investigate habitat use in a tropical forest-town interface and microhabitat use around streetlights differing in wavelength (type of light) and accessibility (distance to vegetation). Plasticity in microhabitat use also was examined in relation to season and moonlight. We recorded a total of 25 aerial insectivorous bat species in the study area and found a subset of 20 species in town of which 18 frequently foraged around streetlights. Bat activity (passes/min) was lowest at the forest site, highest at streetlights, and intermediate in the dark areas of town. General bat activity at streetlights was concentrated at bluish-white lights compared to yellow-white and orange lights. However, bats revealed species-specific microhabitats with regard to light type, distance to vegetation, and relative light intensity. Season and moon phase affected microhabitat use around streetlights leading to microhabitat plasticity of individual species. Thus, in the forest-town interface most, but not all, aerial insectivorous bats were present in town and regularly foraged around streetlights, suggesting a species-specific tolerance for habitat alteration. Bats foraging at streetlights used microhabitats, and some species even changed microhabitats, according to season or moon phase. This indicates species-specific requirements for microhabitats and the importance of preserving habitat heterogeneity.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1593
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Author Tsao, J.Y.; Saunders, H.D.; Creighton, J.R.; Coltrin, M.E.; Simmons, J.A.
Title Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics Abbreviated Journal (up) J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
Volume 43 Issue 35 Pages 354001
Keywords artificial light; solid state; light emitting diode; LED; economics
Abstract Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb–Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.
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ISSN 0022-3727 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 127
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.
Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue Pages 11-23
Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification
Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.
Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com
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Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351
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Author Canário, F.; Hespanhol Leitão, A.; Tomé, R.
Title Predation Attempts by Short-eared and Long-eared Owls on Migrating Songbirds Attracted to Artificial Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Raptor Research Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Raptor Research
Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 232-234
Keywords Asio otus; Long-eared Owl; birds; Asio flammeus; Short-eared Owl; artificial light; migration; predation
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ISSN 0892-1016 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 61
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Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M.
Title Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal (up) JQSRT
Volume 181 Issue Pages 52-66
Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain
Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.
Address Dept. Astrof´ısica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323
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