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Author Da Silva, A.; Valcu, M.; Kempenaers, B.
Title Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 2015 Issue Pages 20140126
Keywords Animals; birds; artificial light at night; seasonality; song production; dawn chorus; dusk chorus; weather; European robin; Erithacus rubecula; common blackbird; song thrush; Turdus philomelos; great tit; Parus major; blue tit; common chaffinch; Fringilla coelebs
Abstract Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.
Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany; b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1124
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Author de Jong, M.; Ouyang, J.Q; Da Silva, A.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Kempenaers, B.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Title Effects of nocturnal illumination on life-history decisions and fitness in two wild songbird species Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140128
Keywords Animals; birds; artificial light at night; light spectra; life-history; fitness; Parus major; Ficedula hypoleuca
Abstract The effects of artificial night lighting on animal behaviour and fitness are largely unknown. Most studies report short-term consequences in locations that are also exposed to other anthropogenic disturbance. We know little about how the effects of nocturnal illumination vary with different light colour compositions. This is increasingly relevant as the use of LED lights becomes more common, and LED light colour composition can be easily adjusted. We experimentally illuminated previously dark natural habitat with white, green and red light, and measured the effects on life-history decisions and fitness in two free-living songbird species, the great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in two consecutive years. In 2013, but not in 2014, we found an effect of light treatment on lay date, and of the interaction of treatment and distance to the nearest lamp post on chick mass in great tits but not in pied flycatchers. We did not find an effect in either species of light treatment on breeding densities, clutch size, probability of brood failure, number of fledglings and adult survival. The finding that light colour may have differential effects opens up the possibility to mitigate negative ecological effects of nocturnal illumination by using different light spectra.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands; m.dejong@nioo.knaw.nl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1125
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 2015 Issue Pages 20140131
Keywords Ecology; light pollution; photopollution; artificial light at night; biotic interactions; community-level; bottom-up effects; grasslands; herbivores; invertebrates; pea aphid; Acyrthosiphon pisum; plants; insects
Abstract Artificial light at night has a wide range of biological effects on both plants and animals. Here, we review mechanisms by which artificial light at night may restructure ecological communities by modifying the interactions between species. Such mechanisms may be top-down (predator, parasite or grazer controlled), bottom-up (resource-controlled) or involve non-trophic processes, such as pollination, seed dispersal or competition. We present results from an experiment investigating both top-down and bottom-up effects of artificial light at night on the population density of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum in a diverse artificial grassland community in the presence and absence of predators and under low-level light of different spectral composition. We found no evidence for top-down control of A. pisum in this system, but did find evidence for bottom-up effects mediated through the impact of light on flower head density in a leguminous food plant. These results suggest that physiological effects of light on a plant species within a diverse plant community can have detectable demographic effects on a specialist herbivore.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK; k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1128
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Author de Jong, M.; Jeninga, L.; Ouyang, J.Q.; van Oers, K.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.
Title Dose-dependent responses of avian daily rhythms to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal (up) Physiol Behav
Volume 155 Issue Pages 172-179
Keywords Animals; Artificial light at night; Circadian rhythm; Dose-response; Great tit; Light intensity; Melatonin; Parus major
Abstract Recent studies have shown that animals are affected by night-time light exposure. Light is a continuous variable, but our knowledge on how individuals react to different light intensities during the night is limited. We therefore determined the relationship between night light intensity and the behaviour and physiology of great tits (Parus major). We measured daily activity patterns and melatonin levels in 35 males exposed to five different light intensities and found strong, dose-dependent effects. Activity onset was increasingly advanced, and activity offset delayed with higher light intensities. Furthermore, night-time activity increased and melatonin levels measured at midnight decreased with higher intensities. In this experimental study, we demonstrate for the first time dose-dependent effects of artificial light at night on birds' daily activity patterns and melatonin levels. Our results imply that these effects are not limited to a certain threshold, but emerge even when nocturnal light levels are slightly increased. However, in a natural area, these effects may be limited as artificial light levels are commonly low; light intensities drop rapidly with distance from a light source and birds can avoid exposure to light at night. Future studies should thus focus on examining the impact of different intensities of light at night in the wild.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands; m.dejong(at)nioo.knaw.nl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26703233 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1327
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Author Inger, R.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal (up) PLoS One
Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages e98631
Keywords flickering; artificial light; biology
Abstract Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24874801; PMCID:PMC4038456 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 237
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