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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal (up) Conservation Lett.
Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171
Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution
Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.
Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222
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Author Rakshit, K.; Thomas, A.P.; Matveyenko, A.V.
Title Does disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes? Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Current Diabetes Reports Abbreviated Journal (up) Curr Diab Rep
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 474
Keywords *epidemiology; diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; beta cell; T2DM; artificial light; light exposure; circadian disruption
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor for T2DM is the disruption of circadian rhythms (eg, shift-work and sleep loss). In recent years, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent in modern societies and consistently shown to augment T2DM susceptibility (partly mediated through its effects on pancreatic beta-cells). Since beta-cell failure is essential for development of T2DM, we will review current work from epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies designed to gain insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the predisposition to beta-cell failure associated with circadian disruption. Elucidating the role of circadian clocks in regulating beta-cell health will add to our understanding of T2DM pathophysiology and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
Address Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, 900A Weyburn Place, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1534-4827 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24532160; PMCID:PMC3988110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 320
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Author Jiang, J.; He, Y.; Kou, H.; Ju, Z.; Gao, X.; Zhao, H.
Title The effects of artificial light at night on Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus): Behavioral rhythm disruption, melatonin suppression and intestinal microbiota alterations Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal (up) Ecological Indicators
Volume 108 Issue Pages 105702
Keywords Animals; Artificial light at night; Eurasian tree sparrow; Melatonin; Intestinal microbiota
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is rapidly widespread with fast urbanization and becomes an obvious environmental disturbance. Recent studies showed ALAN has multiple negative impacts on a wide range of species including bird biological rhythm disruption, behavioral and physiological disturbance and hormone secretion disorder. However, its effects on bird gut microbiota are scarcely studied. In this study, we used Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), a widely distributed and locally abundant bird species in both urban and rural areas of China to examine the effects of ALAN on locomotor activity rhythm and melatonin secretion, and species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota by simulating urban and rural night light environment. Our results showed ALAN strongly affected circadian rhythm of locomotor activity with earlier start of activity before light-on and later rest after light-off. Moreover, ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin release. Last but not least, ALAN profoundly affected taxonomic compositions, species diversity and community structure of intestinal microbiota of birds. We concluded that ALAN may cause bird health damage by disrupting circadian rhythm, inhibiting melatonin release and altering intestinal microbiota. Melatonin hormone level and intestinal microbiota diversity may be important bioindicators for light pollution.
Address College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2781
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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Green, M.C.
Title Modeling artificial light viewed by fledgling seabirds Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal (up) Ecosphere
Volume 2 Issue 10 Pages art109
Keywords artificial light; fallout; Hydrobatidae; modeling; Newell's Shearwater; Procellariidae; Puffinus newelli; birds
Abstract Artificial light is increasing in coverage across the surface of our planet, impacting the behavioral ecology of many organisms. Attraction to sources of artificial light is a significant threat to certain fledgling shearwaters, petrels (Procellariidae), and storm-petrels (Hydrobatidae) on their first nocturnal flights to the sea. Disorientation by light can cause these birds to crash into vegetation or manmade structures, potentially resulting in death from physical injury, starvation, dehydration, predation by introduced predators, or collisions with vehicles. We developed a GIS-based method to model the intensity of artificial light that fledgling procellariids and hydrobatids could view en route to the ocean (to estimate the degree of threat that artificial light poses to these birds) and present two models for the island of Kauai as examples. These models are particularly relevant to the federally threatened Newell's Shearwater, or `A`o (Puffinus newelli), of which >30,000 fledglings have been collected in response to disorientation by lights on Kauai during the past 30 years. Our models suggest that there are few to no portions of Kauai from which young birds could fledge and not view light on their post-natal nocturnal flights, which is concerning given evidence of a Newell's Shearwater population decline. In future work using this technique, night light intensity layers could be altered to model the effects of modified coastal light conditions on known and potential procellariid and hydrobatid breeding locations. Furthermore, certain methods presented herein may be applicable to other seabirds and additional taxa in which attraction to anthropogenic light poses a serious threat, including migratory passerines and hatchling marine turtles. Components of this modeling approach could potentially be used to spatially estimate effects of other point-source threats to ecological systems, including sound and air pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 60
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Author Kamrowski, R.; Limpus, C.; Moloney, J.; Hamann, M.
Title Coastal light pollution and marine turtles: assessing the magnitude of the problem Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Endangered Species Research Abbreviated Journal (up) Endang. Species. Res.
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 85-98
Keywords Artificial light; Orientation; Coastal development; GIS analysis; Vulnerability assessment; turtles; reptiles; animals; marine turtles; Australia; Queensland
Abstract Globally significant numbers of marine turtles nest on Australian beaches; however, the human population of Australia is also heavily concentrated around coastal areas. Coastal development brings with it increases in artificial light. Since turtles are vulnerable to disorientation from artificial light adjacent to nesting areas, the mitigation of disruption caused by light pollution has become an important component of marine turtle conservation strategies in Australia. However, marine turtles are faced with a multitude of anthropogenic threats and managers need to prioritise impacts to ensure limited conservation resources can result in adequate protection of turtles. Knowledge of the extent to which nesting areas may be vulnerable to light pollution is essential to guide management strategies. We use geographical information system analysis to over-lay turtle nesting data onto night-time lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, to assess the proportion of marine turtles in Australia potentially at risk from light pollution. We also identify the Australian nesting sites which may face the greatest threat from artificial light. Our assessment indicates that the majority of nesting turtles appear to be at low risk, but population management units in Western Australia and Queensland are vulnerable to light pollution. The risk to turtles from light generated by industrial developments appears significantly higher than at any other location. Consequently, managers of turtle management units in regions of proposed or on-going industrial development should anticipate potentially disrupted turtle behaviour due to light pollution. Our methodology will be useful to managers of turtles elsewhere.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1863-5407 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 74
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