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Author Moaraf, S.; Vistoropsky, Y.; Pozner, T.; Heiblum, R.; Okuliarova, M.; Zeman, M.; Barnea, A.
Title Artificial light at night affects brain plasticity and melatonin in birds Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Neuroscience Letters Abbreviated Journal (up) Neurosci Lett
Volume in press Issue Pages 134639
Keywords Animals; Artificial Light At Night (ALAN); cell proliferation; circadian cycle; melatonin; neuronal densities; zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN), which disrupts the daily cycle of light, has vast biological impacts on all organisms, and is also associated with several health problems. The few existing studies on neuronal plasticity and cognitive functions in mammals indicate that a disruption of the circadian cycle impairs learning and memory and suppresses neurogenesis. However, nothing is known about the effect of ALAN on neuronal plasticity in birds. To this end, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to ecologically relevant ALAN intensities (0.5, 1.5 and 5 lux), treated with BrdU to quantify cell proliferation in their ventricular zone (VZ), and compared to controls that were kept under dark nights. We found, in our diurnal birds, that ALAN significantly increased cell proliferation in the VZ. However, neuronal densities in two brain regions decreased under ALAN, suggesting neuronal death. In addition, ALAN suppressed nocturnal melatonin production in a dose-dependent manner, and might also increase body mass. Taken together, our findings add to the notion of the deleterious effect of ALAN.
Address Department of Natural and Life Sciences, The Open University of Israel, Ra'anana, 43107, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0304-3940 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31760086 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2760
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Author Fasciani, I.; Petragnano, F.; Aloisi, G.; Marampon, F.; Rossi, M.; Francesca Coppolino, M.; Rossi, R.; Longoni, B.; Scarselli, M.; Maggio, R.
Title A new threat to dopamine neurons: the downside of artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal (up) Neuroscience
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Human Health; Parkinson's disease; artificial light; dopamine neurons; melatonin; opsins; photoactivation
Abstract Growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light on human health has led to recognize light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Despite, a large number of studies in rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease have reported that near infrared light has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons, recent findings have shown that prolonged exposure of rodents and birds to fluorescent artificial light results in an increase of neuromelanin granules in substantia nigra and loss of dopaminergic neurons. The observed detrimental effect seems to be dependent on a direct effect of light on the substantia nigra rather than a secondary effect of the alterations of circadian rhythms. Moreover, inferences from animal models to human studies have shown a positive correlation between the prevalence of Parkinson's disease and light pollution. The present article discusses experimental evidence supporting a potentially deleterious impact of light on dopaminergic neurons and highlights the mechanisms whereby light might damage neuronal tissue. Moreover, it analyses epidemiological evidence that suggests light pollution to be an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease.
Address Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address: roberto.maggio@univaq.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32142863 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2839
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Author Aubé, M.
Title Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140117
Keywords Skyglow; artificial light at night; light pollution; radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; scattering; methods; numerical; sensitivity analysis
Abstract Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005: Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane.
Address Département de physique, Cégep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1115
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Partecke, J.
Title Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140118
Keywords Animals; urbanization; light pollution; artificial light at night; light loggers; daylength; photoperiod; Turdus merula; European blackbird
Abstract Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radiotelemetry,to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.
Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK; davide.dominoni@glasgow.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1117
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stevens, R.G.; Zhu, Y.
Title Electric light, particularly at night, disrupts human circadian rhythmicity: is that a problem? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal (up) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140120
Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; breast cancer; circadian genes; artificial light at night; iron
Abstract Over the past 3 billion years, an endogenous circadian rhythmicity has developed in almost all life forms in which daily oscillations in physiology occur. This allows for anticipation of sunrise and sunset. This physiological rhythmicity is kept at precisely 24 h by the daily cycle of sunlight and dark. However, since the introduction of electric lighting, there has been inadequate light during the day inside buildings for a robust resetting of the human endogenous circadian rhythmicity, and too much light at night for a true dark to be detected; this results in circadian disruption and alters sleep/wake cycle, core body temperature, hormone regulation and release, and patterns of gene expression throughout the body. The question is the extent to which circadian disruption compromises human health, and can account for a portion of the modern pandemics of breast and prostate cancers, obesity, diabetes and depression. As societies modernize (i.e. electrify) these conditions increase in prevalence. There are a number of promising leads on putative mechanisms, and epidemiological findings supporting an aetiologic role for electric lighting in disease causation. These include melatonin suppression, circadian gene expression, and connection of circadian rhythmicity to metabolism in part affected by haem iron intake and distribution.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA; bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1118
Permanent link to this record