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Author Davies, T.W.; Coleman, M.; Griffith, K.M.; Jenkins, S.R.
Title Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biology Letters
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 20150080-20150080
Keywords Ecology; artificial light pollution; marine ecosystems; epifaunal communities; larval recruitment; anthropogenic disturbance; light-emitting diodes; LED; biodiversity; artificial light at night; biology
Abstract Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved (up) no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1162
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Author Kim, Y.J.; Lee, E.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, M.; Park, M.S.
Title High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 657-667
Keywords Human Health; Artificial light at night; breast cancer; generalized poisson distribution; light pollution; treatment prevalence
Abstract It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.
Address Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University , Seoul , South Korea
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25955405 Approved (up) no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1170
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Author Hersh, C.; Sisti, J.; Richiutti, V.; Schernhammer, E.
Title The effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; melatonin; circadian rhythm; 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; artificial light at night
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The circadian hormone melatonin has wide-reaching effects on human physiology. In adolescents, the impact of nighttime light exposure and other modifiable behavioral factors on melatonin levels is poorly understood.

DESIGN: We cross-sectionally examined the influence of nighttime behaviors on melatonin levels in 100 adolescents (average age: 15.7; 55 female, 45 male), who completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided a first morning urine sample to assay for urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) levels. We used mixed-effects regression models to test for differences in aMT6s levels by categories of covariates.

RESULTS: Self-reported sleep duration, ambient light levels during sleep, and use of electronics after turning off lights did not significantly predict aMT6s levels. Compared to those who reported weekend bedtimes before 11pm, urinary aMT6s levels were significantly lower among participants reporting weekend bedtimes after midnight (52.5 vs. 38.0 ng/mg creatinine, Ptrend=0.007). Sleep interruption also appeared to be significantly associated with lower urinary aMT6s levels, but only if lights were turned on during sleep interruption (43.0 ng/mg creatinine for participants with sleep interruption but not turning lights on, vs. 24.6 ng/mg creatinine for participants reporting that they turned on the light when their sleep was interrupted Pdifference=0.032).



CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that self-reported sleep-related behaviors have little to no effect on adolescent circadian systems, though larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Address Julia Sisti, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Tel.: (201) 694-2077, E-mail: jss235@mail.harvard.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Greek Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved (up) no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1215
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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Lett.
Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171
Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution
Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.
Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved (up) no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222
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Author Schoeman, M.C.
Title Light pollution at stadiums favors urban exploiter bats: Selected urban exploiter bats hunt insects at stadiums Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim. Conserv.
Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 120–130
Keywords Animals; artificial light; light pollution; Molossidae; predator–prey interactions; urban avoiders; urban exploiters; bats; bats; mammals; Chaerephon pumilus; Tadarida aegyptiaca; Otomops martiensseni; Mops condylurus
Abstract Artificial night lighting by humans may destabilize ecosystems by altering light-dependent biological processes of organisms and changing the availability of light and darkness as resources of food, information and refuge. I tested the hypothesis that urban exploiters should be more likely to utilize bright, unpredictable light pollution sources such as sport stadiums and building sites than urban avoiders. I quantified insectivorous bat activity and feeding attempts at seven sport stadiums under light and dark treatments using acoustic monitoring of echolocation calls. Species richness estimators indicated that stadium inventories were complete. Activity and feeding attempts were significantly higher at lit stadiums than dark stadiums, irrespective of season or surrounding human land use. Bats exhibited species-specific differences in utilization of stadiums. As predicted, four urban exploiters – Chaerephon pumilus, Tadarida aegyptiaca, Otomops martiensseni and Scotophilus dinganii – dominated activity and feeding attempts at lit stadiums, yet one urban exploiter – Mops condylurus – was associated with dark stadiums. Activity levels at both dark and light stadiums were negatively correlated with peak echolocation frequency. Landscape-scale and finer scale abiotic variables were poor predictors of bat activity and feeding attempts. My results suggest that in addition to abiotic processes associated with urbanization, light pollution at sport stadiums may homogenize urban bat diversity by favoring selected urban exploiters.
Address School of Life Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; schoemanc(at)ukzn.ac.za
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved (up) no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1223
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