|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Dwyer, R.G.; Bearhop, S.; Campbell, H.A.; Bryant, D.M.
Title Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages (down) 478-485
Keywords Artificial light; Dmsp/Ols; foraging strategy; moonlight; shorebirds; birds; animals; foraging; Tringa totanus; common redshank
Abstract Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23190422 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 44
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rakshit, K.; Thomas, A.P.; Matveyenko, A.V.
Title Does disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes? Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Current Diabetes Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Diab Rep
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages (down) 474
Keywords *epidemiology; diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; beta cell; T2DM; artificial light; light exposure; circadian disruption
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor for T2DM is the disruption of circadian rhythms (eg, shift-work and sleep loss). In recent years, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent in modern societies and consistently shown to augment T2DM susceptibility (partly mediated through its effects on pancreatic beta-cells). Since beta-cell failure is essential for development of T2DM, we will review current work from epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies designed to gain insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the predisposition to beta-cell failure associated with circadian disruption. Elucidating the role of circadian clocks in regulating beta-cell health will add to our understanding of T2DM pathophysiology and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
Address Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, 900A Weyburn Place, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1534-4827 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24532160; PMCID:PMC3988110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 320
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kocifaj, M.; Kómar, L.
Title A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 458 Issue 1 Pages (down) 438-448
Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; artificial light; numerical modeling; GIS-based modeling; light pollution
Abstract Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; kocifaj(at)savba.sk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1361
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Shimoda, M.; Honda, K.-ichiro
Title Insect reactions to light and its applications to pest management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Entomology and Zoology Abbreviated Journal Appl Entomol Zool
Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages (down) 413-421
Keywords ultraviolet; light; Integrated pest management; Artificial lighting; Photoreception; Phototaxis; Light-emitting diode; *Lighting
Abstract Insects are able to see ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nocturnal insects are often attracted to light sources that emit large amounts of UV radiation, and devices that exploit this behavior, such as light traps for forecasting pest outbreaks, and electric insect killers, have been developed. Some diurnal species are attracted to yellow; yellow pan traps are used for conducting surveys for pest outbreaks and yellow sticky plates are used for pest control. Lamps that give off yellow illumination have been used effectively to control the activity of nocturnal moths and thus reduce damage to fruit, vegetables, and flowers. Covering cultivation facilities with film that filters out near-UV radiation reduces the invasion of pests such as whiteflies and thrips into the facilities, thus reducing damage. Reflective material placed on cultivated land can control the approach of flying insects such as aphids. Future development and use of new light sources such as light-emitting diodes is anticipated for promoting integrated pest management.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-6862 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 110
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Edison, T.A.
Title The Success of the Electric Light Type Magazine Article
Year 1880 Publication The North American Review Abbreviated Journal N. American Rev.
Volume 131 Issue 287 Pages (down) 295-300
Keywords Society; history; artificial light; Lighting
Abstract (none)
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Northern Iowa Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1272
Permanent link to this record