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Author Jung, K.; Kalko, E.K.
Title Where forest meets urbanization: foraging plasticity of aerial insectivorous bats in an anthropogenically altered environment Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J. Mammal.
Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages (down) 144-153
Keywords animals; flying mammals; acoustic monitoring; anthropogenic influence; artificial light; bat activity; Chiroptera; habitat plasticity; moon
Abstract Given worldwide rapid human population growth resulting in degradation or loss of habitats, it is important to understand how anthropogenic factors affect species presence and activity, and consequently, how well species tolerate or adapt to anthropogenically altered environments. This study, conducted in Panama, focuses on aerial insectivorous bats, a highly mobile and ecologically important, but largely understudied group. Acoustic monitoring was used to investigate habitat use in a tropical forest-town interface and microhabitat use around streetlights differing in wavelength (type of light) and accessibility (distance to vegetation). Plasticity in microhabitat use also was examined in relation to season and moonlight. We recorded a total of 25 aerial insectivorous bat species in the study area and found a subset of 20 species in town of which 18 frequently foraged around streetlights. Bat activity (passes/min) was lowest at the forest site, highest at streetlights, and intermediate in the dark areas of town. General bat activity at streetlights was concentrated at bluish-white lights compared to yellow-white and orange lights. However, bats revealed species-specific microhabitats with regard to light type, distance to vegetation, and relative light intensity. Season and moon phase affected microhabitat use around streetlights leading to microhabitat plasticity of individual species. Thus, in the forest-town interface most, but not all, aerial insectivorous bats were present in town and regularly foraged around streetlights, suggesting a species-specific tolerance for habitat alteration. Bats foraging at streetlights used microhabitats, and some species even changed microhabitats, according to season or moon phase. This indicates species-specific requirements for microhabitats and the importance of preserving habitat heterogeneity.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1593
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Author Schoeman, M.C.
Title Light pollution at stadiums favors urban exploiter bats: Selected urban exploiter bats hunt insects at stadiums Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim. Conserv.
Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages (down) 120–130
Keywords Animals; artificial light; light pollution; Molossidae; predator–prey interactions; urban avoiders; urban exploiters; bats; bats; mammals; Chaerephon pumilus; Tadarida aegyptiaca; Otomops martiensseni; Mops condylurus
Abstract Artificial night lighting by humans may destabilize ecosystems by altering light-dependent biological processes of organisms and changing the availability of light and darkness as resources of food, information and refuge. I tested the hypothesis that urban exploiters should be more likely to utilize bright, unpredictable light pollution sources such as sport stadiums and building sites than urban avoiders. I quantified insectivorous bat activity and feeding attempts at seven sport stadiums under light and dark treatments using acoustic monitoring of echolocation calls. Species richness estimators indicated that stadium inventories were complete. Activity and feeding attempts were significantly higher at lit stadiums than dark stadiums, irrespective of season or surrounding human land use. Bats exhibited species-specific differences in utilization of stadiums. As predicted, four urban exploiters – Chaerephon pumilus, Tadarida aegyptiaca, Otomops martiensseni and Scotophilus dinganii – dominated activity and feeding attempts at lit stadiums, yet one urban exploiter – Mops condylurus – was associated with dark stadiums. Activity levels at both dark and light stadiums were negatively correlated with peak echolocation frequency. Landscape-scale and finer scale abiotic variables were poor predictors of bat activity and feeding attempts. My results suggest that in addition to abiotic processes associated with urbanization, light pollution at sport stadiums may homogenize urban bat diversity by favoring selected urban exploiters.
Address School of Life Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; schoemanc(at)ukzn.ac.za
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1223
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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Green, M.C.
Title Modeling artificial light viewed by fledgling seabirds Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere
Volume 2 Issue 10 Pages (down) art109
Keywords artificial light; fallout; Hydrobatidae; modeling; Newell's Shearwater; Procellariidae; Puffinus newelli; birds
Abstract Artificial light is increasing in coverage across the surface of our planet, impacting the behavioral ecology of many organisms. Attraction to sources of artificial light is a significant threat to certain fledgling shearwaters, petrels (Procellariidae), and storm-petrels (Hydrobatidae) on their first nocturnal flights to the sea. Disorientation by light can cause these birds to crash into vegetation or manmade structures, potentially resulting in death from physical injury, starvation, dehydration, predation by introduced predators, or collisions with vehicles. We developed a GIS-based method to model the intensity of artificial light that fledgling procellariids and hydrobatids could view en route to the ocean (to estimate the degree of threat that artificial light poses to these birds) and present two models for the island of Kauai as examples. These models are particularly relevant to the federally threatened Newell's Shearwater, or `A`o (Puffinus newelli), of which >30,000 fledglings have been collected in response to disorientation by lights on Kauai during the past 30 years. Our models suggest that there are few to no portions of Kauai from which young birds could fledge and not view light on their post-natal nocturnal flights, which is concerning given evidence of a Newell's Shearwater population decline. In future work using this technique, night light intensity layers could be altered to model the effects of modified coastal light conditions on known and potential procellariid and hydrobatid breeding locations. Furthermore, certain methods presented herein may be applicable to other seabirds and additional taxa in which attraction to anthropogenic light poses a serious threat, including migratory passerines and hatchling marine turtles. Components of this modeling approach could potentially be used to spatially estimate effects of other point-source threats to ecological systems, including sound and air pollution.
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ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 60
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Author Thompson, G.
Title Spiders and the electric light Type Journal Article
Year 1887 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 9 Issue 208 Pages (down) 92
Keywords Ecology; artificial light at night; spiders; arachnids
Abstract Some disadvantage or evil appears to be attendant upon every invention, and the electric light is not an exception in this respect. In this city they have been placed in positions with a view of illuminating the buildings, notably the treasury, and a fine and striking effect is produced. At the same time, a species of spider has discovered that game is plentiful in their vicinity, and that he can ply his craft both day and night. In consequence, their webs are so thick and numerous that portions of the architectural ornamentation are no longer visible, and when torn down by the wind, or when they fall from decay, the refuse gives a dingy and dirty appearance to every thing it comes in contact with. Not only this, but these adventurers take possession of the portion of the ceiling of any room which receives the illumination. It would be of interest to know whether this spider is confined to a certain latitude, and at what seasons of the year our temperature we can indulge in our illumination.
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Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1267
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Author Kamrowski, R.; Limpus, C.; Moloney, J.; Hamann, M.
Title Coastal light pollution and marine turtles: assessing the magnitude of the problem Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Endangered Species Research Abbreviated Journal Endang. Species. Res.
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages (down) 85-98
Keywords Artificial light; Orientation; Coastal development; GIS analysis; Vulnerability assessment; turtles; reptiles; animals; marine turtles; Australia; Queensland
Abstract Globally significant numbers of marine turtles nest on Australian beaches; however, the human population of Australia is also heavily concentrated around coastal areas. Coastal development brings with it increases in artificial light. Since turtles are vulnerable to disorientation from artificial light adjacent to nesting areas, the mitigation of disruption caused by light pollution has become an important component of marine turtle conservation strategies in Australia. However, marine turtles are faced with a multitude of anthropogenic threats and managers need to prioritise impacts to ensure limited conservation resources can result in adequate protection of turtles. Knowledge of the extent to which nesting areas may be vulnerable to light pollution is essential to guide management strategies. We use geographical information system analysis to over-lay turtle nesting data onto night-time lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, to assess the proportion of marine turtles in Australia potentially at risk from light pollution. We also identify the Australian nesting sites which may face the greatest threat from artificial light. Our assessment indicates that the majority of nesting turtles appear to be at low risk, but population management units in Western Australia and Queensland are vulnerable to light pollution. The risk to turtles from light generated by industrial developments appears significantly higher than at any other location. Consequently, managers of turtle management units in regions of proposed or on-going industrial development should anticipate potentially disrupted turtle behaviour due to light pollution. Our methodology will be useful to managers of turtles elsewhere.
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ISSN 1863-5407 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 74
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