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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 764-767
Keywords Ecology; artificial light pollution; community composition; ground-dwelling invertebrates; high pressure sodium; street lights
Abstract Artificial lighting has been used to illuminate the nocturnal environment for centuries and continues to expand with urbanization and economic development. Yet, the potential ecological impact of the resultant light pollution has only recently emerged as a major cause for concern. While investigations have demonstrated that artificial lighting can influence organism behaviour, reproductive success and survivorship, none have addressed whether it is altering the composition of communities. We show, for the first time, that invertebrate community composition is affected by proximity to street lighting independently of the time of day. Five major invertebrate groups contributed to compositional differences, resulting in an increase in the number of predatory and scavenging individuals in brightly lit communities. Our results indicate that street lighting changes the environment at higher levels of biological organization than previously recognized, raising the potential that it can alter the structure and function of ecosystems.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 474
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Author Hölker, F.; Moss, T.; Griefahn, B.; Kloas, W.; Voigt, C.; et al.
Title The Dark Side of Light: A Transdisciplinary Research Agenda for Light Pollution Policy Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Ecol Soc Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Ecology; artificial light; energy efficiency; lighting concept; light pollution; nightscape; policy; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Abstract Although the invention and widespread use of artificial light is clearly one of the most important human technological advances, the transformation of nightscapes is increasingly recognized as having adverse effects. Night lighting may have serious physiological consequences for humans, ecological and evolutionary implications for animal and plant populations, and may reshape entire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the adverse effects of light pollution is vague. In response to climate change and energy shortages, many countries, regions, and communities are developing new lighting programs and concepts with a strong focus on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the dramatic increase in artificial light at night (0 – 20% per year, depending on geographic region), we see an urgent need for light pollution policies that go beyond energy efficiency to include human well-being, the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and inter-related socioeconomic consequences. Such a policy shift will require a sound transdisciplinary understanding of the significance of the night, and its loss, for humans and the natural systems upon which we depend. Knowledge is also urgently needed on suitable lighting technologies and concepts which are ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable. Unless managing darkness becomes an integral part of future conservation and lighting policies, modern society may run into a global self-experiment with unpredictable outcomes.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 478
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Author Isenstadt, S.; Petty, M.M.; Neumann, D.
Title Cities of Light: Two Centuries of Urban Illumination Type Book Whole
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; urban; cities; outdoor lighting; artificial lighting; urban design; city planning; urban studies; urban history; infrastructure
Abstract Cities of Light is the first global overview of modern urban illumination, a development that allows human wakefulness to colonize the night, doubling the hours available for purposeful and industrious activities. Urban lighting is undergoing a revolution due to recent developments in lighting technology, and increased focus on sustainability and human-scaled environments. Cities of Light is expansive in coverage, spanning two centuries and touching on developments on six continents, without diluting its central focus on architectural and urban lighting. Covering history, geography, theory, and speculation in urban lighting, readers will have numerous points of entry into the book, finding it easy to navigate for a quick reference and or a coherent narrative if read straight through. With chapters written by respected scholars and highly-regarded contemporary practitioners, this book will delight students and practitioners of architectural and urban history, area and cultural studies, and lighting design professionals and the institutional and municipal authorities they serve. At a moment when the entire world is being reshaped by new lighting technologies and new design attitudes, the longer history of urban lighting remains fragmentary. Cities of Light aims to provide a global framework for historical studies of urban lighting and to offer a new perspective on the fast-moving developments of lighting today.
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Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1086
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Author Aubé, M.
Title Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140117
Keywords Skyglow; artificial light at night; light pollution; radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; scattering; methods; numerical; sensitivity analysis
Abstract Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005: Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane.
Address Département de physique, Cégep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1115
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Partecke, J.
Title Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140118
Keywords Animals; urbanization; light pollution; artificial light at night; light loggers; daylength; photoperiod; Turdus merula; European blackbird
Abstract Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radiotelemetry,to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.
Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK; davide.dominoni@glasgow.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1117
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