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Author Riley, W.D.; Bendall, B.; Ives, M.J.; Edmonds, N.J.; Maxwell, D.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street lighting disrupts the diel migratory pattern of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts leaving their natal stream Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture  
  Volume 330-333 Issue (up) Pages 74-81  
  Keywords Artificial light; Behaviour; Migration; Salmon; Smolt; Street lighting  
  Abstract The migratory timing and behaviour of wild Atlantic salmon smolts leaving their natal stream was determined using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) antennae system at a study site on a tributary of the River Itchen, England. Experiments compared the downstream migration of smolts under natural control conditions (2000–2006) with two years (2008 and 2009) when the main downstream exit of the study site was subject to street-lit conditions every alternate night (maximum light intensity measured at the stream surface = 14 lx). Migration of smolts under control conditions was significantly (p < 0.01, n = 170) correlated with sunset. By contrast, street lighting resulted in the timing of migration being random (p = 0.11, n = 7; p = 0.76, n = 34, respectively) with respect to time of day. Furthermore, migration of smolts was significantly (p = 0.01, n = 19) correlated with the time of sunset for fish migrating when the lamp had been off, but random (p = 0.36, n = 22) when the lamp had been on (2008 and 2009 data, combined). This alteration in migratory behaviour due to street lighting may impact fitness.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 69  
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Author Kuechly, H.U.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Lindemann, C.; Wolter, C.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aerial survey and spatial analysis of sources of light pollution in Berlin, Germany Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 126 Issue (up) Pages 39-50  
  Keywords Light pollution; Artificial lighting; Urban analysis; Remote sensing; GIS; Darkness; Spatial analysis; Light at night  
  Abstract Aerial observations of light pollution can fill an important gap between ground based surveys and nighttime satellite data. Terrestrially bound surveys are labor intensive and are generally limited to a small spatial extent, and while existing satellite data cover the whole world, they are limited to coarse resolution. This paper describes the production of a high resolution (1 m) mosaic image of the city of Berlin, Germany at night. The dataset is spatially analyzed to identify the major sources of light pollution in the city based on urban land use data. An area-independent ‘brightness factor’ is introduced that allows direct comparison of the light emission from differently sized land use classes, and the percentage area with values above average brightness is calculated for each class. Using this methodology, lighting associated with streets has been found to be the dominant source of zenith directed light pollution (31.6%), although other land use classes have much higher average brightness. These results are compared with other urban light pollution quantification studies. The minimum resolution required for an analysis of this type is found to be near 10 m. Future applications of high resolution datasets such as this one could include: studies of the efficacy of light pollution mitigation measures, improved light pollution simulations, economic and energy use, the relationship between artificial light and ecological parameters (e.g. circadian rhythm, fitness, mate selection, species distributions, migration barriers and seasonal behavior), or the management of nightscapes. To encourage further scientific inquiry, the mosaic data is freely available at Pangaea: http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.785492.  
  Address Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Space Sciences, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6&#8208;10, 12165 Berlin, Germany  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 188  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating the deleterious effects of light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication F1000 Medicine Reports Abbreviated Journal F1000 Med Rep  
  Volume 3 Issue (up) Pages 18  
  Keywords Human Health; light at night; artificial light; circadian disruption; Review  
  Abstract Technological advances, while providing many benefits, often create circumstances that differ from the conditions in which we evolved. With the wide-spread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20(th) century, humans became exposed to bright and unnatural light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Electrical lighting has led to the wide-scale practice of 24-hour shift-work and has meant that what were once just “daytime” activities now run throughout the night; in many ways Western society now functions on a 24-hour schedule. Recent research suggests that this gain in freedom to function throughout the night may also come with significant repercussions. Disruption of our naturally evolved light and dark cycles can result in a wide range of physiological and behavioral changes with potentially serious medical implications. In this article we will discuss several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on cancer, mood, and obesity, as well as potential ways to ameliorate the impact of light at night.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1757-5931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21941596; PMCID:PMC3169904 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 241  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
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Author Verutes, G.M.; Huang, C.; Estrella, R.R.; Loyd, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exploring scenarios of light pollution from coastal development reaching sea turtle nesting beaches near Cabo Pulmo, Mexico Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation  
  Volume 2 Issue (up) Pages 170-180  
  Keywords Artificial light; Viewshed analysis; Sea turtle conservation; Coastal resort management; InVEST; sea turtle; reptiles; marine reptiles; vertebrates; Mexico; Baja California  
  Abstract New coastal development may offer economic benefits to resort builders and even local communities, but these projects can also impact local ecosystems, key wildlife, and the draw for tourists. We explore how light from Cabo Cortés, a proposed coastal development in Baja California Sur, Mexico, may alter natural light cues used by sea turtle hatchlings. We adapt a viewshed approach to model exterior light originating from the resort under plausible zoning scenarios. This spatially explicit information allows stakeholders to evaluate the likely impact of alternative development options. Our model suggests that direct light’s ability to reach sea turtle nesting beaches varies greatly by source location and height—with some plausible development scenarios leading to significantly less light pollution than others. Our light pollution maps can enhance decision-making, offering clear guidance on where to avoid elevated lamps or when to recommend lighting restrictions. Communities can use this information to participate in development planning to mitigate ecological, aesthetic and economic impacts from artificial lighting. Though tested in Mexico, our approach and free, open-source software can be applied in other places around the world to better understand and manage the threats of light pollution to sea turtles.  
  Address Natural Capital Project, Stanford University, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA  
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  ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 368  
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