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Author Hölker, F.; Moss, T.; Griefahn, B.; Kloas, W.; Voigt, C.; et al.
Title The Dark Side of Light: A Transdisciplinary Research Agenda for Light Pollution Policy Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Ecol Soc Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords (up) Ecology; artificial light; energy efficiency; lighting concept; light pollution; nightscape; policy; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Abstract Although the invention and widespread use of artificial light is clearly one of the most important human technological advances, the transformation of nightscapes is increasingly recognized as having adverse effects. Night lighting may have serious physiological consequences for humans, ecological and evolutionary implications for animal and plant populations, and may reshape entire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the adverse effects of light pollution is vague. In response to climate change and energy shortages, many countries, regions, and communities are developing new lighting programs and concepts with a strong focus on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the dramatic increase in artificial light at night (0 – 20% per year, depending on geographic region), we see an urgent need for light pollution policies that go beyond energy efficiency to include human well-being, the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and inter-related socioeconomic consequences. Such a policy shift will require a sound transdisciplinary understanding of the significance of the night, and its loss, for humans and the natural systems upon which we depend. Knowledge is also urgently needed on suitable lighting technologies and concepts which are ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable. Unless managing darkness becomes an integral part of future conservation and lighting policies, modern society may run into a global self-experiment with unpredictable outcomes.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 478
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 2015 Issue Pages 20140131
Keywords (up) Ecology; light pollution; photopollution; artificial light at night; biotic interactions; community-level; bottom-up effects; grasslands; herbivores; invertebrates; pea aphid; Acyrthosiphon pisum; plants; insects
Abstract Artificial light at night has a wide range of biological effects on both plants and animals. Here, we review mechanisms by which artificial light at night may restructure ecological communities by modifying the interactions between species. Such mechanisms may be top-down (predator, parasite or grazer controlled), bottom-up (resource-controlled) or involve non-trophic processes, such as pollination, seed dispersal or competition. We present results from an experiment investigating both top-down and bottom-up effects of artificial light at night on the population density of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum in a diverse artificial grassland community in the presence and absence of predators and under low-level light of different spectral composition. We found no evidence for top-down control of A. pisum in this system, but did find evidence for bottom-up effects mediated through the impact of light on flower head density in a leguminous food plant. These results suggest that physiological effects of light on a plant species within a diverse plant community can have detectable demographic effects on a specialist herbivore.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9FE, UK; k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1128
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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-33
Keywords (up) Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review
Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de
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Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470
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Author Inger, R.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages e98631
Keywords (up) flickering; artificial light; biology
Abstract Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24874801; PMCID:PMC4038456 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 237
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Jones, R.; Anderson, S.; Hamann, M.
Title Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 2437-2449
Keywords (up) GIS analysis; artificial light; conservation planning; marine turtles; population resilience; temporal change
Abstract Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24353164 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 73
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