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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.
Volume 3 Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements
Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255
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Author Kamrowski, R.; Limpus, C.; Moloney, J.; Hamann, M.
Title Coastal light pollution and marine turtles: assessing the magnitude of the problem Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Endangered Species Research Abbreviated Journal Endang. Species. Res.
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 85-98
Keywords (up) Artificial light; Orientation; Coastal development; GIS analysis; Vulnerability assessment; turtles; reptiles; animals; marine turtles; Australia; Queensland
Abstract Globally significant numbers of marine turtles nest on Australian beaches; however, the human population of Australia is also heavily concentrated around coastal areas. Coastal development brings with it increases in artificial light. Since turtles are vulnerable to disorientation from artificial light adjacent to nesting areas, the mitigation of disruption caused by light pollution has become an important component of marine turtle conservation strategies in Australia. However, marine turtles are faced with a multitude of anthropogenic threats and managers need to prioritise impacts to ensure limited conservation resources can result in adequate protection of turtles. Knowledge of the extent to which nesting areas may be vulnerable to light pollution is essential to guide management strategies. We use geographical information system analysis to over-lay turtle nesting data onto night-time lights data produced by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, to assess the proportion of marine turtles in Australia potentially at risk from light pollution. We also identify the Australian nesting sites which may face the greatest threat from artificial light. Our assessment indicates that the majority of nesting turtles appear to be at low risk, but population management units in Western Australia and Queensland are vulnerable to light pollution. The risk to turtles from light generated by industrial developments appears significantly higher than at any other location. Consequently, managers of turtle management units in regions of proposed or on-going industrial development should anticipate potentially disrupted turtle behaviour due to light pollution. Our methodology will be useful to managers of turtles elsewhere.
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ISSN 1863-5407 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 74
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Author Tsao, J.Y.; Saunders, H.D.; Creighton, J.R.; Coltrin, M.E.; Simmons, J.A.
Title Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics Abbreviated Journal J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
Volume 43 Issue 35 Pages 354001
Keywords (up) artificial light; solid state; light emitting diode; LED; economics
Abstract Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb–Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.
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ISSN 0022-3727 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 127
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Author Verutes, G.M.; Huang, C.; Estrella, R.R.; Loyd, K.
Title Exploring scenarios of light pollution from coastal development reaching sea turtle nesting beaches near Cabo Pulmo, Mexico Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume 2 Issue Pages 170-180
Keywords (up) Artificial light; Viewshed analysis; Sea turtle conservation; Coastal resort management; InVEST; sea turtle; reptiles; marine reptiles; vertebrates; Mexico; Baja California
Abstract New coastal development may offer economic benefits to resort builders and even local communities, but these projects can also impact local ecosystems, key wildlife, and the draw for tourists. We explore how light from Cabo Cortés, a proposed coastal development in Baja California Sur, Mexico, may alter natural light cues used by sea turtle hatchlings. We adapt a viewshed approach to model exterior light originating from the resort under plausible zoning scenarios. This spatially explicit information allows stakeholders to evaluate the likely impact of alternative development options. Our model suggests that direct light’s ability to reach sea turtle nesting beaches varies greatly by source location and height—with some plausible development scenarios leading to significantly less light pollution than others. Our light pollution maps can enhance decision-making, offering clear guidance on where to avoid elevated lamps or when to recommend lighting restrictions. Communities can use this information to participate in development planning to mitigate ecological, aesthetic and economic impacts from artificial lighting. Though tested in Mexico, our approach and free, open-source software can be applied in other places around the world to better understand and manage the threats of light pollution to sea turtles.
Address Natural Capital Project, Stanford University, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA
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ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 368
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Author Canário, F.; Hespanhol Leitão, A.; Tomé, R.
Title Predation Attempts by Short-eared and Long-eared Owls on Migrating Songbirds Attracted to Artificial Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Raptor Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Raptor Research
Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 232-234
Keywords (up) Asio otus; Long-eared Owl; birds; Asio flammeus; Short-eared Owl; artificial light; migration; predation
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ISSN 0892-1016 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 61
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