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Author Cho, Y.M.; Ryu, S.-H.; Lee, B.R.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, E.; Choi, J.
Title Effects of artificial light at night on human health: A literature review of observational and experimental studies applied to exposure assessment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (up) Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol. Int.
Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 1294-1310
Keywords Artificial light at night; breast cancer; circadian rhythm; light exposure; light pollution
Abstract It has frequently been reported that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) may cause negative health effects, such as breast cancer, circadian phase disruption and sleep disorders. Here, we reviewed the literature assessing the effects of human exposure to ALAN in order to list the health effects of various aspects of ALAN. Several electronic databases were searched for articles, published through August 2014, related to assessing the effects of exposure to ALAN on human health; these also included the details of experiments on such exposure. A total of 85 articles were included in the review. Several observational studies showed that outdoor ALAN levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and reported that indoor light intensity and individual lighting habits were relevant to this risk. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, increases sleep onset latency (SOL) and increases alertness. Circadian misalignment caused by chronic ALAN exposure may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and/or metabolic functions. ALAN also causes circadian phase disruption, which increases with longer duration of exposure and with exposure later in the evening. It has also been reported that shorter wavelengths of light preferentially disturb melatonin secretion and cause circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. This literature review may be helpful to understand the health effects of ALAN exposure and suggests that it is necessary to consider various characteristics of artificial light, beyond mere intensity.
Address b Department of Preventive Medicine , College of Medicine, Korea University , Seoul , Republic of Korea
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26375320 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1269
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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (up) Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Lett.
Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171
Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution
Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.
Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222
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Author Newman, R.C.; Ellis, T.; Davison, P.I.; Ives, M.J.; Thomas, R.J.; Griffiths, S.W.; Riley, W.D.
Title Using novel methodologies to examine the impact of artificial light at night on the cortisol stress response in dispersing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) fry Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication (up) Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Physiol
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages cov051
Keywords Animals; salmon; Salmo salar; Artificial light at night; Atlantic salmon; cortisol
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is gaining recognition as having an important anthropogenic impact on the environment, yet the behavioural and physiological impacts of this stressor are largely unknown. This dearth of information is particularly true for freshwater ecosystems, which are already heavily impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a species of conservation and economic importance whose ecology and behaviour is well studied, making it an ideal model species. Recent investigations have demonstrated that salmon show disrupted behaviour in response to artificial light; however, it is not yet clear which physiological processes are behind the observed behavioural modifications. Here, two novel non-invasive sampling methods were used to examine the cortisol stress response of dispersing salmon fry under different artificial lighting intensities. Fish egg and embryos were reared under differing ALAN intensities and individual measures of stress were subsequently taken from dispersing fry using static sampling, whereas population-level measures were achieved using deployed passive samplers. Dispersing fry exposed to experimental confinement showed elevated cortisol levels, indicating the capacity to mount a stress response at this early stage in ontogenesis. However, only one of the two methods for sampling cortisol used in this study indicated that ALAN may act as a stressor to dispersing salmon fry. As such, a cortisol-mediated response to light was not strongly supported. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two non-invasive methodologies used in this study is, subject to further validation, indicative of them proving useful in future ecological studies.
Address School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 2920 875 729; newmanrc(at)cardiff.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1397
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Author Rakshit, K.; Thomas, A.P.; Matveyenko, A.V.
Title Does disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes? Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication (up) Current Diabetes Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Diab Rep
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 474
Keywords *epidemiology; diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; beta cell; T2DM; artificial light; light exposure; circadian disruption
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by the loss of beta-cell secretory function and mass. The pathophysiology of beta-cell failure in T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic susceptibilities and environmental risk factors. One environmental condition that is gaining greater appreciation as a risk factor for T2DM is the disruption of circadian rhythms (eg, shift-work and sleep loss). In recent years, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent in modern societies and consistently shown to augment T2DM susceptibility (partly mediated through its effects on pancreatic beta-cells). Since beta-cell failure is essential for development of T2DM, we will review current work from epidemiologic, clinical, and animal studies designed to gain insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the predisposition to beta-cell failure associated with circadian disruption. Elucidating the role of circadian clocks in regulating beta-cell health will add to our understanding of T2DM pathophysiology and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
Address Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, 900A Weyburn Place, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1534-4827 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24532160; PMCID:PMC3988110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 320
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Author Hölker, F.; Moss, T.; Griefahn, B.; Kloas, W.; Voigt, C.; et al.
Title The Dark Side of Light: A Transdisciplinary Research Agenda for Light Pollution Policy Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication (up) Ecol Soc Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Ecology; artificial light; energy efficiency; lighting concept; light pollution; nightscape; policy; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Abstract Although the invention and widespread use of artificial light is clearly one of the most important human technological advances, the transformation of nightscapes is increasingly recognized as having adverse effects. Night lighting may have serious physiological consequences for humans, ecological and evolutionary implications for animal and plant populations, and may reshape entire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the adverse effects of light pollution is vague. In response to climate change and energy shortages, many countries, regions, and communities are developing new lighting programs and concepts with a strong focus on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the dramatic increase in artificial light at night (0 – 20% per year, depending on geographic region), we see an urgent need for light pollution policies that go beyond energy efficiency to include human well-being, the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and inter-related socioeconomic consequences. Such a policy shift will require a sound transdisciplinary understanding of the significance of the night, and its loss, for humans and the natural systems upon which we depend. Knowledge is also urgently needed on suitable lighting technologies and concepts which are ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable. Unless managing darkness becomes an integral part of future conservation and lighting policies, modern society may run into a global self-experiment with unpredictable outcomes.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 478
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