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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-33
Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review
Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 1470
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Author Campaign to Protect Rural England
Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain
Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 1468
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Author Bliss-Ketchum, L.L.; de Rivera, C.E.; Turner, B.C.; Weisbaum, D.M.
Title The effect of artificial light on wildlife use of a passage structure Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 199 Issue Pages 25-28
Keywords Animals; animal movement; Columbia black-tailed deer; deer; Odocoileus hemionus columbianus; deer mouse; Peromyscus maniculatus; opossum; Didelphis virginiana; artificial light at night
Abstract Barriers to animal movement can isolate populations, impacting their genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease, and access to resources. Barriers to movement may be caused by artificial light, which is known to disrupt bird, sea turtle, and bat behavior, but few studies have experimentally investigated the effects of artificial light on movement for a suite of terrestrial vertebrates. Therefore, we studied the effect of ecological light pollution on animal usage of a bridge under-road passage structure. On a weekly basis, sections of the structure were subjected to different light treatments including no light added, followed by a Reference period when lights were off in all the structure sections. Sand track data revealed use by 23 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, nine of which had > 30 tracks for species-level analysis. Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) traversed under unlit bridge sections much less when neighboring sections were lit compared to when none were, suggesting avoidance due to any nearby presence of artificial light. Similarly, deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and opossum (Didelphis virginiana) track paths were less frequent in the lit sections than the ambient. Crossing was correlated with temporal or spatial factors but not light for three of the other species. These findings suggest that artificial light may be reducing habitat connectivity for some species though not providing a strong barrier for others. Such information is needed to inform mitigation of habitat fragmentation in the face of expanding urbanization.
Address Department of Environmental Science & Management, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97207, USA; blissket(at)pdx.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 1445
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Author Costin, K.J.; Boulton, A.M.
Title A Field Experiment on the Effect of Introduced Light Pollution on Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the Piedmont Region of Maryland Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication The Coleopterists Bulletin Abbreviated Journal The Coleopterists Bulletin
Volume 70 Issue 1 Pages 84-86
Keywords Animals; insects; fireflies; Coleoptera; Lampyridae; Coleoptera Lampyridae; artificial light at night; ecology; light pollution
Abstract (none)
Address Environmental Biology Hood College 401 Rosemont Avenue Frederick, MD 21701, U.S.A.; kjc(at)hood.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BioOne Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0010-065X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 1406
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Author Newman, R.C.; Ellis, T.; Davison, P.I.; Ives, M.J.; Thomas, R.J.; Griffiths, S.W.; Riley, W.D.
Title Using novel methodologies to examine the impact of artificial light at night on the cortisol stress response in dispersing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) fry Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Physiol
Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages cov051
Keywords Animals; salmon; Salmo salar; Artificial light at night; Atlantic salmon; cortisol
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is gaining recognition as having an important anthropogenic impact on the environment, yet the behavioural and physiological impacts of this stressor are largely unknown. This dearth of information is particularly true for freshwater ecosystems, which are already heavily impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a species of conservation and economic importance whose ecology and behaviour is well studied, making it an ideal model species. Recent investigations have demonstrated that salmon show disrupted behaviour in response to artificial light; however, it is not yet clear which physiological processes are behind the observed behavioural modifications. Here, two novel non-invasive sampling methods were used to examine the cortisol stress response of dispersing salmon fry under different artificial lighting intensities. Fish egg and embryos were reared under differing ALAN intensities and individual measures of stress were subsequently taken from dispersing fry using static sampling, whereas population-level measures were achieved using deployed passive samplers. Dispersing fry exposed to experimental confinement showed elevated cortisol levels, indicating the capacity to mount a stress response at this early stage in ontogenesis. However, only one of the two methods for sampling cortisol used in this study indicated that ALAN may act as a stressor to dispersing salmon fry. As such, a cortisol-mediated response to light was not strongly supported. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two non-invasive methodologies used in this study is, subject to further validation, indicative of them proving useful in future ecological studies.
Address School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 2920 875 729; newmanrc(at)cardiff.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 1397
Permanent link to this record