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Author Wakefield, A.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal Roy. Soc. Open Sci.  
  Volume 2 Issue 8 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; artificial lighting; light-emitting diode; street lights; bats; moth predation; Nyctalus  
  Abstract The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1237  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ouyang, J.Q; Maaike de Jong, M.H.; Visser, M.E.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Ouyang, J.Q url  openurl
  Title Stressful colours: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 20150517  
  Keywords Animals; birds; corticosterone; stress; Parus major; great tit; artificial light; light spectra  
  Abstract Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is crucial to determine whether nocturnal lighting disrupts circadian rhythms, changes behaviour, reduces fitness and ultimately affects population numbers. We make use of a unique, large-scale network of replicated field sites which were experimentally illuminated at night using lampposts emanating either red, green, white or no light to test effect on stress hormone concentrations (corticosterone) in a songbird, the great tit (Parus major). Adults nesting in white-light transects had higher corticosterone concentrations than in the other treatments. We also found a significant interaction between distance to the closest lamppost and treatment type: individuals in red light had higher corticosterone levels when they nested closer to the lamppost than individuals nesting farther away, a decline not observed in the green or dark treatment. Individuals with high corticosterone levels had fewer fledglings, irrespective of treatment. These results show that artificial light can induce changes in individual hormonal phenotype. As these effects vary considerably with light spectrum, it opens the possibility to mitigate these effects by selecting street lighting of specific spectra.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, The Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands; j.ouyang(at)nioo.knaw.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1248  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smolensky, M.H.; Sackett-Lundeen, L.L.; Portaluppi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-20  
  Keywords Human Health; Artificial light at night; cancer; circadian time structure; development and disruption; melatonin; sleep/wake cycle disturbance; sunlight; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; circadian time structure; circadian rhythm; desynchrony  
  Abstract Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like – now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children – is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm lambda) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm lambda) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light environment in which humans reside today. Never have chronobiologic or epidemiologic investigations comprehensively researched the potentially deleterious consequences of the combination of suppressed vitamin D plus melatonin synthesis due to life in today's man-made artificial light environment, which in our opinion is long overdue.  
  Address c Hypertension Center, S. Anna University Hospital, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26374931 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1271  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Thompson, G. url  openurl
  Title Spiders and the electric light Type Journal Article
  Year 1887 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 9 Issue 208 Pages 92  
  Keywords Ecology; artificial light at night; spiders; arachnids  
  Abstract Some disadvantage or evil appears to be attendant upon every invention, and the electric light is not an exception in this respect. In this city they have been placed in positions with a view of illuminating the buildings, notably the treasury, and a fine and striking effect is produced. At the same time, a species of spider has discovered that game is plentiful in their vicinity, and that he can ply his craft both day and night. In consequence, their webs are so thick and numerous that portions of the architectural ornamentation are no longer visible, and when torn down by the wind, or when they fall from decay, the refuse gives a dingy and dirty appearance to every thing it comes in contact with. Not only this, but these adventurers take possession of the portion of the ceiling of any room which receives the illumination. It would be of interest to know whether this spider is confined to a certain latitude, and at what seasons of the year our temperature we can indulge in our illumination.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1267  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cho, Y.M.; Ryu, S.-H.; Lee, B.R.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, E.; Choi, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of artificial light at night on human health: A literature review of observational and experimental studies applied to exposure assessment Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol. Int.  
  Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 1294-1310  
  Keywords Artificial light at night; breast cancer; circadian rhythm; light exposure; light pollution  
  Abstract It has frequently been reported that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) may cause negative health effects, such as breast cancer, circadian phase disruption and sleep disorders. Here, we reviewed the literature assessing the effects of human exposure to ALAN in order to list the health effects of various aspects of ALAN. Several electronic databases were searched for articles, published through August 2014, related to assessing the effects of exposure to ALAN on human health; these also included the details of experiments on such exposure. A total of 85 articles were included in the review. Several observational studies showed that outdoor ALAN levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and reported that indoor light intensity and individual lighting habits were relevant to this risk. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, increases sleep onset latency (SOL) and increases alertness. Circadian misalignment caused by chronic ALAN exposure may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and/or metabolic functions. ALAN also causes circadian phase disruption, which increases with longer duration of exposure and with exposure later in the evening. It has also been reported that shorter wavelengths of light preferentially disturb melatonin secretion and cause circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. This literature review may be helpful to understand the health effects of ALAN exposure and suggests that it is necessary to consider various characteristics of artificial light, beyond mere intensity.  
  Address b Department of Preventive Medicine , College of Medicine, Korea University , Seoul , Republic of Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26375320 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1269  
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