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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title (up) Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Lett.
Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171
Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution
Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.
Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title (up) Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 764-767
Keywords Ecology; artificial light pollution; community composition; ground-dwelling invertebrates; high pressure sodium; street lights
Abstract Artificial lighting has been used to illuminate the nocturnal environment for centuries and continues to expand with urbanization and economic development. Yet, the potential ecological impact of the resultant light pollution has only recently emerged as a major cause for concern. While investigations have demonstrated that artificial lighting can influence organism behaviour, reproductive success and survivorship, none have addressed whether it is altering the composition of communities. We show, for the first time, that invertebrate community composition is affected by proximity to street lighting independently of the time of day. Five major invertebrate groups contributed to compositional differences, resulting in an increase in the number of predatory and scavenging individuals in brightly lit communities. Our results indicate that street lighting changes the environment at higher levels of biological organization than previously recognized, raising the potential that it can alter the structure and function of ecosystems.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 474
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Author Riley, W.D.; Bendall, B.; Ives, M.J.; Edmonds, N.J.; Maxwell, D.L.
Title (up) Street lighting disrupts the diel migratory pattern of wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts leaving their natal stream Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Aquaculture Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture
Volume 330-333 Issue Pages 74-81
Keywords Artificial light; Behaviour; Migration; Salmon; Smolt; Street lighting
Abstract The migratory timing and behaviour of wild Atlantic salmon smolts leaving their natal stream was determined using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) antennae system at a study site on a tributary of the River Itchen, England. Experiments compared the downstream migration of smolts under natural control conditions (2000–2006) with two years (2008 and 2009) when the main downstream exit of the study site was subject to street-lit conditions every alternate night (maximum light intensity measured at the stream surface = 14 lx). Migration of smolts under control conditions was significantly (p < 0.01, n = 170) correlated with sunset. By contrast, street lighting resulted in the timing of migration being random (p = 0.11, n = 7; p = 0.76, n = 34, respectively) with respect to time of day. Furthermore, migration of smolts was significantly (p = 0.01, n = 19) correlated with the time of sunset for fish migrating when the lamp had been off, but random (p = 0.36, n = 22) when the lamp had been on (2008 and 2009 data, combined). This alteration in migratory behaviour due to street lighting may impact fitness.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 69
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Author Ouyang, J.Q; Maaike de Jong, M.H.; Visser, M.E.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Ouyang, J.Q
Title (up) Stressful colours: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.
Volume 11 Issue Pages 20150517
Keywords Animals; birds; corticosterone; stress; Parus major; great tit; artificial light; light spectra
Abstract Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is crucial to determine whether nocturnal lighting disrupts circadian rhythms, changes behaviour, reduces fitness and ultimately affects population numbers. We make use of a unique, large-scale network of replicated field sites which were experimentally illuminated at night using lampposts emanating either red, green, white or no light to test effect on stress hormone concentrations (corticosterone) in a songbird, the great tit (Parus major). Adults nesting in white-light transects had higher corticosterone concentrations than in the other treatments. We also found a significant interaction between distance to the closest lamppost and treatment type: individuals in red light had higher corticosterone levels when they nested closer to the lamppost than individuals nesting farther away, a decline not observed in the green or dark treatment. Individuals with high corticosterone levels had fewer fledglings, irrespective of treatment. These results show that artificial light can induce changes in individual hormonal phenotype. As these effects vary considerably with light spectrum, it opens the possibility to mitigate these effects by selecting street lighting of specific spectra.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, The Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands; j.ouyang(at)nioo.knaw.nl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1248
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Jones, R.; Anderson, S.; Hamann, M.
Title (up) Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 2437-2449
Keywords GIS analysis; artificial light; conservation planning; marine turtles; population resilience; temporal change
Abstract Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24353164 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 73
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