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Author Hamilton, J.
Title Electric Light Captures Type Journal Article
Year 1889 Publication Psyche Abbreviated Journal Psyche
Volume (down) 5 Issue 153 Pages 149-150
Keywords Animals; Ecology; artificial light; Calosoma scrutator; Calosoma willcoxi; Calosoma externum; Diplochila major; Polymoechus brevipes; Erycus puncticollis; Cybister fimbirolatus; Dytiscus fasciventrus; Hydrophilus trangularis; Belostoma americanum; beetles; hemiptera; insects; coleoptera; water beetles; urban; cities
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1273
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Illuminating the deleterious effects of light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication F1000 Medicine Reports Abbreviated Journal F1000 Med Rep
Volume (down) 3 Issue Pages 18
Keywords Human Health; light at night; artificial light; circadian disruption; Review
Abstract Technological advances, while providing many benefits, often create circumstances that differ from the conditions in which we evolved. With the wide-spread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20(th) century, humans became exposed to bright and unnatural light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Electrical lighting has led to the wide-scale practice of 24-hour shift-work and has meant that what were once just “daytime” activities now run throughout the night; in many ways Western society now functions on a 24-hour schedule. Recent research suggests that this gain in freedom to function throughout the night may also come with significant repercussions. Disruption of our naturally evolved light and dark cycles can result in a wide range of physiological and behavioral changes with potentially serious medical implications. In this article we will discuss several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on cancer, mood, and obesity, as well as potential ways to ameliorate the impact of light at night.
Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1757-5931 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21941596; PMCID:PMC3169904 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 241
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.
Volume (down) 3 Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements
Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255
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Author Newman, R.C.; Ellis, T.; Davison, P.I.; Ives, M.J.; Thomas, R.J.; Griffiths, S.W.; Riley, W.D.
Title Using novel methodologies to examine the impact of artificial light at night on the cortisol stress response in dispersing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) fry Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Physiol
Volume (down) 3 Issue 1 Pages cov051
Keywords Animals; salmon; Salmo salar; Artificial light at night; Atlantic salmon; cortisol
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is gaining recognition as having an important anthropogenic impact on the environment, yet the behavioural and physiological impacts of this stressor are largely unknown. This dearth of information is particularly true for freshwater ecosystems, which are already heavily impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a species of conservation and economic importance whose ecology and behaviour is well studied, making it an ideal model species. Recent investigations have demonstrated that salmon show disrupted behaviour in response to artificial light; however, it is not yet clear which physiological processes are behind the observed behavioural modifications. Here, two novel non-invasive sampling methods were used to examine the cortisol stress response of dispersing salmon fry under different artificial lighting intensities. Fish egg and embryos were reared under differing ALAN intensities and individual measures of stress were subsequently taken from dispersing fry using static sampling, whereas population-level measures were achieved using deployed passive samplers. Dispersing fry exposed to experimental confinement showed elevated cortisol levels, indicating the capacity to mount a stress response at this early stage in ontogenesis. However, only one of the two methods for sampling cortisol used in this study indicated that ALAN may act as a stressor to dispersing salmon fry. As such, a cortisol-mediated response to light was not strongly supported. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two non-invasive methodologies used in this study is, subject to further validation, indicative of them proving useful in future ecological studies.
Address School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 2920 875 729; newmanrc(at)cardiff.ac.uk
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Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1397
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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Green, M.C.
Title Modeling artificial light viewed by fledgling seabirds Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere
Volume (down) 2 Issue 10 Pages art109
Keywords artificial light; fallout; Hydrobatidae; modeling; Newell's Shearwater; Procellariidae; Puffinus newelli; birds
Abstract Artificial light is increasing in coverage across the surface of our planet, impacting the behavioral ecology of many organisms. Attraction to sources of artificial light is a significant threat to certain fledgling shearwaters, petrels (Procellariidae), and storm-petrels (Hydrobatidae) on their first nocturnal flights to the sea. Disorientation by light can cause these birds to crash into vegetation or manmade structures, potentially resulting in death from physical injury, starvation, dehydration, predation by introduced predators, or collisions with vehicles. We developed a GIS-based method to model the intensity of artificial light that fledgling procellariids and hydrobatids could view en route to the ocean (to estimate the degree of threat that artificial light poses to these birds) and present two models for the island of Kauai as examples. These models are particularly relevant to the federally threatened Newell's Shearwater, or `A`o (Puffinus newelli), of which >30,000 fledglings have been collected in response to disorientation by lights on Kauai during the past 30 years. Our models suggest that there are few to no portions of Kauai from which young birds could fledge and not view light on their post-natal nocturnal flights, which is concerning given evidence of a Newell's Shearwater population decline. In future work using this technique, night light intensity layers could be altered to model the effects of modified coastal light conditions on known and potential procellariid and hydrobatid breeding locations. Furthermore, certain methods presented herein may be applicable to other seabirds and additional taxa in which attraction to anthropogenic light poses a serious threat, including migratory passerines and hatchling marine turtles. Components of this modeling approach could potentially be used to spatially estimate effects of other point-source threats to ecological systems, including sound and air pollution.
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ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 60
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