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Author Isenstadt, S.; Petty, M.M.; Neumann, D. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Cities of Light: Two Centuries of Urban Illumination Type Book Whole
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; urban; cities; outdoor lighting; artificial lighting; urban design; city planning; urban studies; urban history; infrastructure  
  Abstract Cities of Light is the first global overview of modern urban illumination, a development that allows human wakefulness to colonize the night, doubling the hours available for purposeful and industrious activities. Urban lighting is undergoing a revolution due to recent developments in lighting technology, and increased focus on sustainability and human-scaled environments. Cities of Light is expansive in coverage, spanning two centuries and touching on developments on six continents, without diluting its central focus on architectural and urban lighting. Covering history, geography, theory, and speculation in urban lighting, readers will have numerous points of entry into the book, finding it easy to navigate for a quick reference and or a coherent narrative if read straight through. With chapters written by respected scholars and highly-regarded contemporary practitioners, this book will delight students and practitioners of architectural and urban history, area and cultural studies, and lighting design professionals and the institutional and municipal authorities they serve. At a moment when the entire world is being reshaped by new lighting technologies and new design attitudes, the longer history of urban lighting remains fragmentary. Cities of Light aims to provide a global framework for historical studies of urban lighting and to offer a new perspective on the fast-moving developments of lighting today.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition First  
  ISSN ISBN 978-1138813915 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hersh, C.; Sisti, J.; Richiutti, V.; Schernhammer, E. url  openurl
  Title The effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin; circadian rhythm; 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; artificial light at night  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The circadian hormone melatonin has wide-reaching effects on human physiology. In adolescents, the impact of nighttime light exposure and other modifiable behavioral factors on melatonin levels is poorly understood.

DESIGN: We cross-sectionally examined the influence of nighttime behaviors on melatonin levels in 100 adolescents (average age: 15.7; 55 female, 45 male), who completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided a first morning urine sample to assay for urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) levels. We used mixed-effects regression models to test for differences in aMT6s levels by categories of covariates.

RESULTS: Self-reported sleep duration, ambient light levels during sleep, and use of electronics after turning off lights did not significantly predict aMT6s levels. Compared to those who reported weekend bedtimes before 11pm, urinary aMT6s levels were significantly lower among participants reporting weekend bedtimes after midnight (52.5 vs. 38.0 ng/mg creatinine, Ptrend=0.007). Sleep interruption also appeared to be significantly associated with lower urinary aMT6s levels, but only if lights were turned on during sleep interruption (43.0 ng/mg creatinine for participants with sleep interruption but not turning lights on, vs. 24.6 ng/mg creatinine for participants reporting that they turned on the light when their sleep was interrupted Pdifference=0.032).



CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that self-reported sleep-related behaviors have little to no effect on adolescent circadian systems, though larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
 
  Address Julia Sisti, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Tel.: (201) 694-2077, E-mail: jss235@mail.harvard.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Greek Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1215  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smolensky, M.H.; Sackett-Lundeen, L.L.; Portaluppi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages 1-20  
  Keywords Human Health; Artificial light at night; cancer; circadian time structure; development and disruption; melatonin; sleep/wake cycle disturbance; sunlight; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; circadian time structure; circadian rhythm; desynchrony  
  Abstract Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like – now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children – is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm lambda) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm lambda) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light environment in which humans reside today. Never have chronobiologic or epidemiologic investigations comprehensively researched the potentially deleterious consequences of the combination of suppressed vitamin D plus melatonin synthesis due to life in today's man-made artificial light environment, which in our opinion is long overdue.  
  Address c Hypertension Center, S. Anna University Hospital, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26374931 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1271  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rowse, E.G., Lewanzik, D.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Dark Matters: The Effects of Artificial Lighting on Bats Type Book Chapter
  Year 2015 Publication Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages 187-213  
  Keywords Animals; bats; vertebrates; ecology; artificial light at night; climate change  
  Abstract While artificial lighting is a major component of global change, its biological impacts have only recently been recognised. Artificial lighting attracts and repels animals in taxon-specific ways and affects physiological processes. Being nocturnal, bats are likely to be strongly affected by artificial lighting. Moreover, many species of bats are insectivorous, and insects are also strongly influenced by lighting. Lighting technologies are changing rapidly, with the use of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps increasing. Impacts on bats and their prey depend on the light spectra produced by street lights ; ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths attract more insects and consequently insectivorous bats. Bat responses to lighting are species-specific and reflect differences in flight morphology and performance ; fast-flying aerial hawking species frequently feed around street lights, whereas relatively slow-flying bats that forage in more confined spaces are often light-averse. Both high-pressure sodium and LED lights reduce commuting activity by clutter-tolerant bats of the genera Myotis and Rhinolophus, and these bats still avoided LED lights when dimmed. Light-induced reductions in the activity of frugivorous bats may affect ecosystem services by reducing dispersal of the seeds of pioneer plants and hence reforestation. Rapid changes in street lighting offer the potential to explore mitigation methods such as part-night lighting (PNL), dimming, directed lighting, and motion-sensitive lighting that may have beneficial consequences for light-averse bat specie.  
  Address School of Life Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Gareth.Jones(at)bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor Voigt, C.C.; Kingston; T.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-25218-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1320  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Campaign to Protect Rural England url  openurl
  Title Night Blight: Mapping England’s light pollution and dark skies Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing; Artificial light at night; United Kingdom; Great Britain  
  Abstract We can now present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night skies. Detailed interactive maps have been created for England

showing districts, counties, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and, at a wider scale, National Character Areas. Besides these, there are high-level maps available for Scotland and Wales, so that we can now

present the most accurate ever picture of how much light is spilling up into Britain’s night sky.
 
  Address Campaign to Protect Rural England, 5-11 Lavington Street, London SE1 0NZ, United Kingdom; info(at)cpre.org.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Campaign to Protect Rural England Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1468  
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