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Author Lacoeuilhe, A.; Machon, N.; Julien, J.-F.; Le Bocq, A.; Kerbiriou, C.
Title The influence of low intensities of light pollution on bat communities in a semi-natural context Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 9 Issue 10 Pages e103042
Keywords Animals; mammals; Vertebrates; bats; light pollution; foraging strategy
Abstract Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasingly significant issue worldwide. Over the past century, the use of artificial lighting has increased in association with human activity. Artificial lights are suspected to have substantial effects on the ecology of many species, e.g., by producing discontinuities in the territories of nocturnal animals. We analyzed the potential influence of the intensity and type of artificial light on bat activity in a semi-natural landscape in France. We used a species approach, followed by a trait-based approach, to light sensitivity. We also investigated whether the effect of light could be related to foraging traits. We performed acoustic surveys at sites located along a gradient of light intensities to assess the activity of 15 species of bats. We identified 2 functional response groups of species: one group that was light-tolerant and one group that was light-intolerant. Among the species in the latter group that appear to be disadvantaged by lighting conditions, many are rare and threatened in Europe, whereas the species from the former group are better able to thrive in disturbed habitats such as lighted areas and may actually benefit from artificial lighting. Finally, several methods of controlling light pollution are suggested for the conservation of bat communities. Recommendations for light management and the creation of dim-light corridors are proposed; these strategies may play an important role in protecting against the impact of light pollution on nocturnal animals.
Address National Museum of Natural History, Ecology and Sciences Conservation Center, CESCO-UMR7204 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25360638; PMCID:PMC4215844 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1066
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Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Minderman, J.
Title Transition from conventional to light-emitting diode street lighting changes activity of urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 264-271
Keywords Animals; Bats
Abstract Light pollution is rapidly increasing and can have deleterious effects on biodiversity, yet light types differ in their effect on wildlife. Among the light types used for street lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to become globally predominant within the next few years.

In a large-scale field experiment, we recorded bat activity at 46 street lights for 12 nights each and investigated how the widespread replacement of conventional illuminants by LEDs affects urban bats: we compared bat activity at municipal mercury vapour (MV) street lamps that were replaced by LEDs with control sites that were not changed.

Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the most frequently recorded species; it was 45% less active at LEDs than at MV street lamps, but the activity did not depend on illuminance level. Light type did not affect the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus or bats in the Nyctalus/Eptesicus/Vespertilio (NEV) group, yet the activity of P. nathusii increased with illuminance level. Bats of the genus Myotis increased activity 4·5-fold at LEDs compared with MV lights, but illuminance level had no effect.

Decreased activity of P. pipistrellus, which are considered light tolerant, probably paralleled insect densities around lights. Further, our results suggest that LEDs may be less repelling for light-averse Myotis spp. than MV lights. Accordingly, the transition from conventional lighting techniques to LEDs may greatly alter the anthropogenic impact of artificial light on urban bats and might eventually affect the resilience of urban bat populations.

Synthesis and applications. At light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the competitive advantage – the exclusive ability to forage on insect aggregations at lights – is reduced for light-tolerant bats. Thus, the global spread of LED street lamps might lead to a more natural level of competition between light-tolerant and light-averse bats. This effect could be reinforced if the potential advantages of LEDs over conventional illuminants are applied in practice: choice of spectra with relatively little energy in the short wavelength range; reduced spillover by precisely directing light; dimming during low human activity times; and control by motion sensors. Yet, the potential benefits of LEDs could be negated if low costs foster an overall increase in artificial lighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1518
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Author Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C.; Pocock, M.
Title Artificial light puts ecosystem services of frugivorous bats at risk Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 388-394
Keywords bats; mammals; animals; bat-facilitated succession; Carollia sowelli; fragmentation; frugivory; habitat connectivity; light pollution; Phyllostomidae; reforestation; seed dispersal
Abstract Natural succession of deforested areas and connectivity of remaining forest patches may suffer due to artificial light at night through a reduction in nocturnal seed disperser activity in lit areas. This could have negative impacts on biodiversity and consequent effects on land erosion, particularly in developing countries of the tropics where light pollution increases rapidly with growing economies and human populations. Mitigation requires that the use of artificial light should be limited in space, time and intensity to the minimum necessary. The effectiveness of ‘darkness corridors’ to enhance fragment connectivity and to reduce species loss should be evaluated. Policy-makers of tropical countries should become aware of the potential detrimental effects of artificial lighting on wildlife and ecosystem functioning.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 98
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Author Mathews, F.; Roche, N.; Aughney, T.; Jones, N.; Day, J.; Baker, J.; Langton, S.
Title Barriers and benefits: implications of artificial night-lighting for the distribution of common bats in Britain and Ireland Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140124
Keywords Animals; Chiroptera; Nyctalus leisleri; Pipistrellus pipistrellus; pipistrelle bat; Leisler's bat; bats, mammals; artificial light at night; migration; fragmentation; vision; outdoor lighting
Abstract Artificial lighting is a particular problem for animals active at night. Approximately 69% of mammal species are nocturnal, and one-third of these are bats. Due to their extensive movements—both on a nightly basis to exploit ephemeral food supplies, and during migration between roosts—bats have an unusually high probability of encountering artificial light in the landscape. This paper reviews the impacts of lighting on bats and their prey, exploring the direct and indirect consequences of lighting intensity and spectral composition. In addition, new data from large-scale surveys involving more than 265 000 bat calls at more than 600 locations in two countries are presented, showing that prevalent street-lighting types are not generally linked with increased activity of common and widespread bat species. Such bats, which are important to ecosystem function, are generally considered ‘light-attracted’ and likely to benefit from the insect congregations that form at lights. Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) may be an exception, being more frequent in lit than dark transects. For common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), lighting is negatively associated with their distribution on a landscape scale, but there may be local increases in habitats with good tree cover. Research is now needed on the impacts of sky glow and glare for bat navigation, and to explore the implications of lighting for habitat matrix permeability.
Address Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK; f.mathews@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1123
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Author Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A.
Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages 522-531
Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection
Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085
Permanent link to this record