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Author Addison, D.; Stewart, B.
Title Nighttime Lights Revisited: The Use of Nighttime Lights Data as a Proxy for Economic Variables Type Report
Year 2015 Publication World Bank Group Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Economics; earth observation; satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; NPP-VIIRS; gross domestic product; electric power consumption; capital; population; linear regression; night-time light data; economic monitoring
Abstract The growing availability of free or inexpensive satellite imagery has inspired many researchers to investigate the use of earth observation data for monitoring economic activity around the world. One of the most popular earth observation data sets is the so-called nighttime lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Researchers have found positive correlations between nighttime lights and several economic variables. These correlations are based on data measured in levels, with a cross-section of observations within a single time period across countries or other geographic units. The findings suggest that nighttime lights could be used as a proxy for some economic variables, especially in areas or times where data are weak or unavailable. Yet, logic suggests that nighttime lights cannot serve as a good proxy for monitoring the within-in country growth rates all of these variables. Examples examined this paper include constant price gross domestic product, nonagricultural gross domestic product, manufacturing value

added, and capital stocks, as well as electricity consumption, total population, and urban population. The study finds that the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data are quite noisy and therefore the resulting growth elasticities of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights with respect to most of these socioeconomic variables are low, unstable over time, and generate little explanatory power. The one exception for which Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights could serve as a proxy is electricity consumption, measured in 10-year intervals. It is hoped that improved data from the recently launched Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite will help expand or improve these outcomes. Testing this should be an important next step.
Address DAddison(at)worldbank.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Bank Group Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1363
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Author Narendra, A.; Reid, S.F.; Raderschall, C.A.
Title Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e58801
Keywords Adaptation, Biological/*physiology; Animals; Ants/*physiology; Australian Capital Territory; *Cues; Geographic Information Systems; Homing Behavior/*physiology; *Light; Locomotion/*physiology; Orientation/*physiology; insects
Abstract Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.
Address ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ajay.narendra@anu.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23484052; PMCID:PMC3590162 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 117
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