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Author (up) Arendt, J.; Middleton, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human seasonal and circadian studies in Antarctica (Halley, 75 degrees S) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol  
  Volume 258 Issue Pages 250-258  
  Keywords Human Activities; Acclimatization/*physiology; Actigraphy; Adult; Antarctic Regions; Behavior/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Female; Heart Rate/physiology; Humans; Libido; Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Photoperiod; *Seasons; Sleep/physiology; Young Adult; *Antarctica; *Circadian; *Light; *Melatonin; *Seasonal  
  Abstract Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75 degrees S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer. Light of sufficient intensity and spectral composition serves to suppress production of melatonin and to set the circadian timing and the duration of the rhythm. In humans early observations suggested that bright (>2000 lux) white light was needed to suppress melatonin completely. Shortly thereafter winter depression (Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD) was described, and its successful treatment by an artificial summer photoperiod of bright white light, sufficient to shorten melatonin production. At Halley dim artificial light intensity during winter was measured, until 2003, at a maximum of approximately 500 lux in winter. Thus a strong seasonal and circadian time cue was absent. It seemed likely that winter depression would be common in the extended period of winter darkness and could be treated with an artificial summer photoperiod. These observations, and predictions, inspired a long series of studies regarding human seasonal and circadian status, and the effects of light treatment, in a small overwintering, isolated community, living in the same conditions for many months at Halley. We found little evidence of SAD, or change in duration of melatonin production with season. However the timing of the melatonin rhythm itself, and/or that of its metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), was used as a primary marker of seasonal, circadian and treatment changes. A substantial phase delay of melatonin in winter was advanced to summer phase by a two pulse 'skeleton' bright white light treatment. Subsequently a single morning pulse of bright white light was effective with regard to circadian phase and improved daytime performance. The circadian delay evidenced by melatonin was accompanied by delayed sleep (logs and actigraphy): poor sleep is a common complaint in Polar regions. Appropriate extra artificial light, both standard white, and blue enriched, present throughout the day, effectively countered delay in sleep timing and the aMT6s rhythm. The most important factor appeared to be the maximum light experienced. Another manifestation of the winter was a decline in self-rated libido (men only on base at this time). Women on the base showed lower aspects of physical and mental health compared to men. Free-running rhythms were seen in some subjects following night shift, but were rarely found at other times, probably because this base has strongly scheduled activity and leisure time. Complete circadian adaptation during a week of night shift, also seen in a similar situation on North Sea oil rigs, led to problems readapting back to day shift in winter, compared to summer. Here again timed light treatment was used to address the problem. Sleep, alertness and waking performance are critically dependent on optimum circadian phase. Circadian desynchrony is associated with increased risk of major disease in shift workers. These studies provide some groundwork for countering/avoiding circadian desynchrony in rather extreme conditions.  
  Address Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Electronic address: b.middleton@surrey.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28526480 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2248  
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Author (up) Boivin, D.B.; Boudreau, P.; James, F.O.; Kin, N.M.K.N.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Photic resetting in night-shift work: impact on nurses' sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 619-628  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; *Circadian Rhythm; *Darkness; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Middle Aged; *Nurses; Sleep/*physiology; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to quantify daytime sleep in night-shift workers with and without an intervention designed to recover the normal relationship between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep/wake cycle. Workers of the treatment group received intermittent exposure to full-spectrum bright light during night shifts and wore dark goggles during the morning commute home. All workers maintained stable 8-h daytime sleep/darkness schedules. The authors found that workers of the treatment group had daytime sleep episodes that lasted 7.1 +/- .1 h (mean +/- SEM) versus 6.6 +/- .2 h for workers in the control group (p = .04). The increase in total sleep time co-occurred with a larger proportion of the melatonin secretory episode during daytime sleep in workers of the treatment group. The results of this study showed reestablishment of a phase angle that is comparable to that observed on a day-oriented schedule favors longer daytime sleep episodes in night-shift workers. (Author correspondence: diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca ).  
  Address Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22621359 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 144  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Boivin, D.B.; Boudreau, P.; Tremblay, G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Phototherapy and orange-tinted goggles for night-shift adaptation of police officers on patrol Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 629-640  
  Keywords Human Health; Adaptation, Physiological/*physiology; Adult; Attention/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Color; Darkness; *Eye Protective Devices/adverse effects; Female; Humans; Light; Male; Melatonin/analogs & derivatives/metabolism/urine; Phototherapy/*adverse effects; *Police; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Saliva/chemistry; Sleep/physiology; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology  
  Abstract The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age +/- SD: 29.8 +/- 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age +/- SD: 30.3 +/- 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 x /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 x /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 x /h) and performance (1 x /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was higher during daytime sleep episodes at the end compared to the start of the work week (p < .001). This rate increased significantly more in the intervention than control group (p = .032). A significant phase delay of salivary melatonin was observed in both groups at the end of study (p = .009), although no significant between-group difference was reached. Reaction speed dropped, and subjective alertness decreased throughout the night shift in both groups (p < .001). Reaction speed decreased throughout the work week in the control group (p </= .021), whereas no difference was observed in the intervention group. Median reaction time was increased as of the 5th and 6th nights compared to the 2nd night in controls (p </= .003), whereas it remained stable in the intervention group. These observations indicate better physiological adaptation in the intervention group compared to the controls.  
  Address Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms , Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22621360 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 509  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Cajochen, C.; Jud, C.; Munch, M.; Kobialka, S.; Wirz-Justice, A.; Albrecht, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evening exposure to blue light stimulates the expression of the clock gene PER2 in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The European Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurosci  
  Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 1082-1086  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Color; Darkness; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Gene Expression/*radiation effects; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Mucous Membrane/metabolism/radiation effects; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*metabolism; Period Circadian Proteins; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract We developed a non-invasive method to measure and quantify human circadian PER2 gene expression in oral mucosa samples and show that this gene oscillates in a circadian (= about a day) fashion. We also have the first evidence that induction of human PER2 expression is stimulated by exposing subjects to 2 h of light in the evening. This increase in PER2 expression was statistically significant in comparison to a non-light control condition only after light at 460 nm (blue) but not after light exposure at 550 nm (green). Our results indicate that the non-image-forming visual system is involved in human circadian gene expression. The demonstration of a functional circadian machinery in human buccal samples and its response to light opens the door for investigation of human circadian rhythms at the gene level and their associated disorders.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric University Clinics, University of Basel, CH-4025 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@unibas.ch  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0953-816X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16519674 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 727  
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Author (up) Challéat, S.; Lapostolle, D.; Milian, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Night-time Environment in French Mountain Areas. A Resource and a Transition Operator Towards Sustainability Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Revue de géographie alpine Abbreviated Journal rga  
  Volume 106 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Darkness; Society  
  Abstract This article presents our approach to construct the night-time environment (NE) as an interdisciplinary research subject. Understood within the framework of various French mountain areas, we show that the NE is highly indicative of different development trajectories. We analyse them by combining traditional social science research into territory with the ecosystem approaches of the experimental sciences. We show how the NE resource (NER) is transformed into an operator that facilitates the transition towards sustainability. By highlighting three of the NE’s specifications, this work lays the groundwork for a transdisciplinary approach.  
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  ISSN 0035-1121 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1867  
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Author (up) Charlier, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “You Know the Pyrenees by Day – Come See Them by Night...” Reflections on in visu Artialisation of Nocturnal Skyscapes in the Pyrenees Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Revue de géographie alpine Abbreviated Journal rga  
  Volume 106 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Society; Economics; Darkness  
  Abstract “Nocturnal skyscapes. You know the Pyrenees by day – come see them by night... ”: thus the title of an exhibition of photographs set up in 2012 by the Pays de Lourdes et des Vallées des Gaves (Hautes-Pyrénées département) to help raise public awareness about the project for the Pic du Midi International Dark Sky Reserve (IDSR), mainly among the local population and stakeholders in the areas concerned.

Although its evocative title might suggest otherwise, this is rather more than an exhibition on the iconic sites of the Pyrenees seen at night. What it seems to do is to bring out new landscapes that are not just “mountainscapes at night”, or simply night-time versions of landscapes seen by day.

The night skies that characterise these landscapes therefore represent an new category, they need to be considered in their entirety as conveying a meaning that encompasses all that is both construed and material in our relationships with landscape. As in many areas with similar projects either in place (North America, Europe) or emerging (the Cévennes and Mercantour national parks in France, for example), the creation of the Pic du Midi IDSR will have helped to bring a new kind of “landscape object” (Besse, 2009) into being in the Pyrenean region.
 
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  ISSN 0035-1121 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1869  
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Author (up) Collison, F.M.; Poe, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Astronomical Tourism”: The Astronomy and Dark Sky Program at Bryce Canyon National Park Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Tourism Management Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Tourism Management Perspectives  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Astronomy-related tourism; National parks; Night sky darkness; astrotourism; dark skies  
  Abstract Astronomical tourism represents a less-studied segment of sustainable tourism, where a dark night sky is the underlying resource. This article evaluates an astronomical tourism program, in this case at a national park with dark skies for observing. Bryce Canyon National Park (BCNP) in the southwestern United States has a well-developed astronomy program to serve visitors. The program consists of solar viewing during the day, multimedia evening programs, and night-time star gazing with telescopes. Depending on the specific measure used, it appears that up to 10% of park visitors may be involved with the formal Astronomy and Dark Sky Program and/or more informal astronomy activities. BCNP appears well positioned to take advantage of the dark sky attributes of the park and to educate visitors about the importance of maintaining and/or increasing the darkness of night skies. Potential future developments in the program may serve to further increase the number of visitors to BCNP.  
  Address School of Travel Industry Management, 1901 Ruby Lane, Liberty, MO 64068; collison(at)hawaii.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 128  
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Author (up) Connelly, S.J.; Stoeckel, J.A.; Gitzen, R.A.; Williamson, C.E.; Gonzalez, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of Clonal Selection on Daphnia Tolerance to Dark Experimental Conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 7 Pages e0159628  
  Keywords Darkness, Animals  
  Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated substantial effects of environmental stress that vary among clones. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is an important abiotic stressor that is highly variable in aquatic ecosystems due to diel and seasonal variations in incident sunlight as well as to differences in the UV transparency of water among water bodies, the depth distribution of organisms, and the ability of organisms to detect and respond to UV. In contrast to the convention that all UV is damaging, evidence is accumulating for the beneficial effects of exposure to low levels of UV radiation. Whereas UV has been frequently observed as the primary light-related stressor, herein we present evidence that dark conditions may be similarly “stressful” (reduction of overall fitness), and stress responses vary among clones of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia parvula. We have identified a significant relationship between survivorship and reduced fecundity of clones maintained in dark conditions, but no correlation between tolerance of the clones to dark and UV radiation. Low tolerance to dark conditions can have negative effects not only on accumulated stresses in organisms (e.g. the repair of UV-induced damage in organisms with photolyase), but potentially on the overall physiology and fitness of organisms. Our results support recent evidence of the beneficial effects of low-level UV exposure for some organisms.  
  Address Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, United States of America  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:27434210 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1491  
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Author (up) den Outer, P.; Lolkema, D.; Haaima, M.; van der Hoff, R.; Spoelstra, H.; Schmidt, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume 11 Issue 10 Pages 9603-9612  
  Keywords Calibration; Darkness; *Extraterrestrial Environment; Humans; Light; Luminescent Measurements; Netherlands; *Optical Phenomena; Optics and Photonics/*instrumentation/*methods; Sky Quality Meter; artificial lighting; intercalibration; intercomparison; light pollution; night sky brightness  
  Abstract Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between +/-14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 +/- 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 +/- 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.  
  Address National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, A. van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. peter.den.outer@rivm.nl  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22163715; PMCID:PMC3231263 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 196  
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Author (up) Dunnett, O, url  openurl
  Title Contested landscapes: the moral geographies of light pollution in Britain Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Cultural Geographies Abbreviated Journal Cultural Geographies  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 619-636  
  Keywords Light pollution; geography; darkness; moral geographies; urbanization  
  Abstract This paper considers the concept of light pollution and its connections to moral geographies of landscape in Britain. The paper aims to provide a greater understanding of light pollution in the present day, where the issue connects to policy debates about energy efficiency, crime, health, ecology and night time aesthetics, whilst also engaging with new areas of research in cultural geography. The main sources of investigation are the Campaign to Protect Rural England and the British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies (est. 1990). Using interviews, archival and textual analysis, the paper examines this anti-light-pollution lobby, looking at the lead-up to the formation of the Campaign as well as its ongoing influence. A moral geography of light pollution is identified, drawing on two interconnected discourses – a notion of the ‘astronomical sublime’ and the problem of urbanization. Whilst the former is often invoked, both through visual and linguistic means, by anti-light pollution campaigners, the latter is characterized as a threat to clear night skies, echoing earlier protests against urban sprawl. Complementing a growing area of research, the geographies of light and darkness, this paper considers the light pollution lobby as a way of investigating the fundamental relationship between humankind and the cosmos in the modern age.  
  Address School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Elmwood Avenue, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK  
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  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 353  
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