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Author (up) Anisimov, V.N.; Vinogradova, I.A.; Panchenko, A.V.; Popovich, I.G.; Zabezhinskii, M.A.
Title Light-at-Night-Induced Circadian Disruption, Cancer and Aging Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Current Aging Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 170-177
Keywords Animals; Light-at-night; aging; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; circadian; circadian rhythm; diabetes; disruption; melatonin; shift-work
Abstract Light-at-night has become an increasing and essential part of the modern lifestyle and leads to a number of health problems, including excessive body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that “shift-work that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) [1]. According to the circadian disruption hypothesis, light-at-night might disrupt the endogenous circadian rhythm and specifically suppress nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin and its secretion into the blood. We evaluated the effect of various light/dark regimens on the survival, life span, and spontaneous and chemical carcinogenesis in rodents. Exposure to constant illumination was followed by accelerated aging and enhanced spontaneous tumorigenesis in female CBA and transgenic HER-2/neu mice. In male and female rats maintained at various light/dark regimens (standard 12:12 light/dark [LD], the natural light [NL] of northwestern Russia, constant light [LL], and constant darkness [DD]) from the age of 25 days until natural death, it was found that exposure to NL and LL regimens accelerated age-related switch-off of the estrous function (in females), induced development of metabolic syndrome and spontaneous tumorigenesis, and shortened life span both in male and females rats compared to the standard LD regimen. Melatonin given in nocturnal drinking water prevented the adverse effect of the constant illumination (LL) and natural light (NL) regimens on the homeostasis, life span, and tumor development both in mice and rats. The exposure to the LL regimen accelerated colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats, whereas the treatment with melatonin alleviated the effects of LL. The maintenance of rats at the DD regimen inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis. The LL regimen accelerated, whereas the DD regimen inhibited both mammary carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylurea and transplacental carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosoethylurea in rats. Treatment with melatonin prevented premature aging and tumorigenesis in rodents. The data found in the literature and our observations suggest that the use of melatonin would be effective for cancer prevention in humans at risk as a result of light pollution.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 377
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Author (up) Aubé, M.; Roby, J.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages e67798
Keywords Humans; *Light; Lighting/methods; Melatonin/*metabolism; Photosynthesis/*radiation effects; Plant Development/radiation effects; blue light; circadian disruption
Abstract Artificial light at night can be harmful to the environment, and interferes with fauna and flora, star visibility, and human health. To estimate the relative impact of a lighting device, its radiant power, angular photometry and detailed spectral power distribution have to be considered. In this paper we focus on the spectral power distribution. While specific spectral characteristics can be considered harmful during the night, they can be considered advantageous during the day. As an example, while blue-rich Metal Halide lamps can be problematic for human health, star visibility and vegetation photosynthesis during the night, they can be highly appropriate during the day for plant growth and light therapy. In this paper we propose three new indices to characterize lamp spectra. These indices have been designed to allow a quick estimation of the potential impact of a lamp spectrum on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility. We used these new indices to compare various lighting technologies objectively. We also considered the transformation of such indices according to the propagation of light into the atmosphere as a function of distance to the observer. Among other results, we found that low pressure sodium, phosphor-converted amber light emitting diodes (LED) and LED 2700 K lamps filtered with the new Ledtech's Equilib filter showed a lower or equivalent potential impact on melatonin suppression and star visibility in comparison to high pressure sodium lamps. Low pressure sodium, LED 5000 K-filtered and LED 2700 K-filtered lamps had a lower impact on photosynthesis than did high pressure sodium lamps. Finally, we propose these indices as new standards for the lighting industry to be used in characterizing their lighting technologies. We hope that their use will favor the design of new environmentally and health-friendly lighting technologies.
Address Departement de physique, Cegep de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. martin.aube@cegepsherbrooke.qc.ca
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23861808; PMCID:PMC3702543 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 282
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Author (up) Bedrosian, T.A. (ed)
Title Circadian Disruption by Light at Night: Implications for Mood Type Book Whole
Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords circadian disruption; sleep; light at night; melanopsin; mood; mental health; Mood Disorders; epigenetics; red light
Abstract Life on Earth has adapted to a consistent 24-h solar cycle. Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior remain synchronized to the environment using light as the most potent entraining cue. During the past century, however, the widespread adoption of electric light has led to `round-the-clock’ societies. Instead of aligning with the environment, individuals follow artificial and often erratic light cycles created by social and work schedules. In particular, exposure to artificial light at night (LAN), termed “light pollution”, has become pervasive over the past 100 years. Virtually every individual living in the U.S. and Europe experiences this aberrant light exposure, and moreover about 20% of the population performs shift work. LAN may disrupt physiological timekeeping, leading to dysregulation of internal processes and misalignment between behavior and the environment. Recent evidence suggests that individuals exposed to excessive LAN, such as night shift workers, have increased risk for depressive disorders, but the biological mechanism remains unspecified. In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) project light information to (1) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, regulating circadian rhythms, and (2) to limbic regions, putatively regulating mood. Thus, LAN has the potential to affect both circadian timekeeping and mood. In this dissertation, I present evidence from rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that night-time exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood. First, I consider the physiological and behavioral consequences associated with unnatural exposure to LAN. The effects of LAN on circadian output are considered in terms of locomotor activity, the diurnal cortisol rhythm, and diurnal clock protein expression in the brain in Chapter 2. The influence of LAN on behavior and brain plasticity is discussed, with particular focus on depressive-like behavior (Chapter 3) and effects of SSRI treatment (Chapter 4). Effects of LAN on structural plasticity and gene expression in the brain are described, with emphasis on potential correlates of the depressive-like behavior observed under LAN in Chapter 5. Given the prevalence of LAN exposure and its importance, strategies for reversing the effects are offered. Specifically, eliminating LAN quickly reverses behavioral and physiological effects of exposure as described in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6 I report that administration of a pharmacological cytokine inhibitor prevents depressive-like behaviors in LAN, implicating brain inflammation in the behavioral effect. Finally, I demonstrate in Chapter 7 that exposure to red wavelength LAN reduces the effects on brain and behavior, suggesting that LAN acts through specific retinal pathways involving melanopsin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the consequences of LAN, but also outline potential avenues for prevention or intervention.
Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Bedrosian, T.A.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 323
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Author (up) Bonmati-Carrion, M.; Arguelles-Prieto, R.; Martinez-Madrid, M.; Reiter, R.; Hardeland, R.; Rol, M.; Madrid, J.
Title Protecting the Melatonin Rhythm through Circadian Healthy Light Exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal IJMS
Volume 15 Issue 12 Pages 23448-23500
Keywords human health; chronodisruption; circadian; light at night (LAN); melanopsin; melatonin
Abstract Currently, in developed countries, nights are excessively illuminated (light at night), whereas daytime is mainly spent indoors, and thus people are exposed to much lower light intensities than under natural conditions. In spite of the positive impact of artificial light, we pay a price for the easy access to light during the night: disorganization of our circadian system or chronodisruption (CD), including perturbations in melatonin rhythm. Epidemiological studies show that CD is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, obesity, heart disease, cognitive and affective impairment, premature aging and some types of cancer. Knowledge of retinal photoreceptors and the discovery of melanopsin in some ganglion cells demonstrate that light intensity, timing and spectrum must be considered to keep the biological clock properly entrained. Importantly, not all wavelengths of light are equally chronodisrupting. Blue light, which is particularly beneficial during the daytime, seems to be more disruptive at night, and induces the strongest melatonin inhibition. Nocturnal blue light exposure is currently increasing, due to the proliferation of energy-efficient lighting (LEDs) and electronic devices. Thus, the development of lighting systems that preserve the melatonin rhythm could reduce the health risks induced by chronodisruption. This review addresses the state of the art regarding the crosstalk between light and the circadian system.
Address Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain
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Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
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ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1078
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Author (up) Boyce, P.R.
Title Review: The Impact of Light in Buildings on Human Health Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal Indoor and Built Environment
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 8-20
Keywords review; indoor light; human health; circadian disruption; shift work; oncogenesis
Abstract The effects of light on health can be divided into three sections. The first is that of light as radiation. Exposure to the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation produced by light sources can damage both the eye and skin, through both thermal and photochemical mechanisms. Such damage is rare for indoor lighting installations designed for vision but can occur in some situations. The second is light operating through the visual system. Lighting enables us to see but lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort are likely to lead to eyestrain. Anyone who frequently experiences eyestrain is not enjoying the best of health. The lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort in buildings are well known and easily avoided. The third is light operating through the circadian system. This is known to influence sleep patterns and believed to be linked to the development of breast cancer among night shift workers. There is still much to learn about the impact of light on human health but what is known is enough to ensure that the topic requires the attention of all those concerned with the lighting of buildings.
Address Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, USA
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1420-326X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 292
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