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Author Robert, K.A.; Lesku, J.A.; Partecke, J.; Chambers, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 282 Issue 1816 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Macropus eugenii; anthropogenic disturbance; circadian disruption; light pollution; melatonin; trophic mismatch; ecology; wildlife  
  Abstract Change in day length is an important cue for reproductive activation in seasonally breeding animals to ensure that the timing of greatest maternal investment (e.g. lactation in mammals) coincides with favourable environmental conditions (e.g. peak productivity). However, artificial light at night has the potential to interfere with the perception of such natural cues. Following a 5-year study on two populations of wild marsupial mammals exposed to different night-time levels of anthropogenic light, we show that light pollution in urban environments masks seasonal changes in ambient light cues, suppressing melatonin levels and delaying births in the tammar wallaby. These results highlight a previously unappreciated relationship linking artificial light at night with induced changes in mammalian reproductive physiology, and the potential for larger-scale impacts at the population level.  
  Address School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26423847 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1286  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rumanova, V.S.; Okuliarova, M.; Zeman, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Differential Effects of Constant Light and Dim Light at Night on the Circadian Control of Metabolism and Behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal Int J Mol Sci  
  Volume 21 Issue 15 Pages  
  Keywords Review; Animals; behavior; chronodisruption; circadian; corticosterone; dim light at night; hormones; locomotor activity; melatonin; metabolism; rhythms  
  Abstract The disruption of circadian rhythms by environmental conditions can induce alterations in body homeostasis, from behavior to metabolism. The light:dark cycle is the most reliable environmental agent, which entrains circadian rhythms, although its credibility has decreased because of the extensive use of artificial light at night. Light pollution can compromise performance and health, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present review assesses the consequences induced by constant light (LL) in comparison with dim light at night (dLAN) on the circadian control of metabolism and behavior in rodents, since such an approach can identify the key mechanisms of chronodisruption. Data suggest that the effects of LL are more pronounced compared to dLAN and are directly related to the light level and duration of exposure. Dim LAN reduces nocturnal melatonin levels, similarly to LL, but the consequences on the rhythms of corticosterone and behavioral traits are not uniform and an improved quantification of the disrupted rhythms is needed. Metabolism is under strong circadian control and its disruption can lead to various pathologies. Moreover, metabolism is not only an output, but some metabolites and peripheral signal molecules can feedback on the circadian clockwork and either stabilize or amplify its desynchronization.  
  Address Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovicova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32751870 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3062  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Smolensky, M.H.; Sackett-Lundeen, L.L.; Portaluppi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-20  
  Keywords Human Health; Artificial light at night; cancer; circadian time structure; development and disruption; melatonin; sleep/wake cycle disturbance; sunlight; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; circadian time structure; circadian rhythm; desynchrony  
  Abstract Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like – now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children – is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm lambda) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm lambda) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light environment in which humans reside today. Never have chronobiologic or epidemiologic investigations comprehensively researched the potentially deleterious consequences of the combination of suppressed vitamin D plus melatonin synthesis due to life in today's man-made artificial light environment, which in our opinion is long overdue.  
  Address c Hypertension Center, S. Anna University Hospital, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26374931 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1271  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stevens, R.G.; Zhu, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Electric light, particularly at night, disrupts human circadian rhythmicity: is that a problem? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140120  
  Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; breast cancer; circadian genes; artificial light at night; iron  
  Abstract Over the past 3 billion years, an endogenous circadian rhythmicity has developed in almost all life forms in which daily oscillations in physiology occur. This allows for anticipation of sunrise and sunset. This physiological rhythmicity is kept at precisely 24 h by the daily cycle of sunlight and dark. However, since the introduction of electric lighting, there has been inadequate light during the day inside buildings for a robust resetting of the human endogenous circadian rhythmicity, and too much light at night for a true dark to be detected; this results in circadian disruption and alters sleep/wake cycle, core body temperature, hormone regulation and release, and patterns of gene expression throughout the body. The question is the extent to which circadian disruption compromises human health, and can account for a portion of the modern pandemics of breast and prostate cancers, obesity, diabetes and depression. As societies modernize (i.e. electrify) these conditions increase in prevalence. There are a number of promising leads on putative mechanisms, and epidemiological findings supporting an aetiologic role for electric lighting in disease causation. These include melatonin suppression, circadian gene expression, and connection of circadian rhythmicity to metabolism in part affected by haem iron intake and distribution.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA; bugs@uchc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1118  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Van Geffen, K.G.; Groot, A.T.; Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial night lighting disrupts sex pheromone in a noctuid moth: Moth sex pheromone in illuminated nights Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Ecological Entomology Abbreviated Journal Ecol Entomol  
  Volume 40 Issue 4 Pages 401-408  
  Keywords Animals; moths; Disruption; light pollution; Mamestra brassicae; sex pheromone composition; sexual communication  
  Abstract 1. One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is the increase in nocturnal light pollution. Although this strongly alters the habitat of nocturnal species, the ecological consequences are poorly known. Moths are well known to be attracted to artificial light sources, but artificial light may affect them in other ways as well.

2. In this study, female Mamestra brassicae moths were subjected to various types of low-intensity artificial night lighting with contrasting spectral compositions (green-rich, red-rich, warm white) or to a dark control treatment and the effects on their sex pheromone production and composition were tested.

3. Artificial night lighting reduced sex pheromone production and altered the chemical composition of the pheromone blend, irrespective of spectral composition. Specifically, amounts of the main pheromone component Z11-16:Ac were reduced, while the deterring compounds Z9-14:Ac, Z9-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH were increased relative to Z11-16:Ac when females were kept under artificial light. These changes may reduce the effectiveness of the sex pheromones, becoming less attractive for males.

4. These results show for the first time that artificial light at night affects processes that are involved in moth reproduction. The potential for mitigation through manipulation of the spectral composition of artificial light appears limited.
 
  Address Astrid T. Groot, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, the Netherlands. E-mail: a.t.groot(at)uva.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0307-6946 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1153  
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