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Author Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C.; Baugh, K.
Title VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages 4423-4449
Keywords SNPP; VIIRS; fire detection; gas flaring; biomass burning; fossil fuel carbon emissions
Abstract The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2), and radiant heat (MW). Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Power (MW).
Address Earth Observation Group, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 199
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