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Author (up) Benke, K.E.; Benke, K.K.; Dimitriadis, C. url  openurl
  Title Spectral content of artificial lighting and effects on health. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 13-15  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract There is an increasing body of evidence indicating possible health effects from prolonged exposure to artificial lighting after dark. Both compact fluorescent lights and light emitting diode lamps have a greater proportion of blue light in the emission spectrum than the older incandescent light sources. Exposure to the blue light component at night has been the subject of ongoing research, with a number of published studies linking blue light content to the disruption of the internal body clock, suppression of melatonin production and various ocular effects. Aside from short-term discomfort, possible health effects include long-term chronic illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A brief review of recent research is provided, salient health issues are noted and discussed, and some examples of exposure minimisation strategies are suggested.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 520  
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Author (up) Benot, S.; R. Goberna; R. J. Reiter; S. Garcia-Mauriño; C. Osuna; J. M. Guerrero url  openurl
  Title Physiological levels of melatonin contribute to the antioxidant capacity of human serum Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 59-64  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract This work evaluates whether physiological concentrations of the pineal secretory product melatonin contribute to the total antioxidant status (TAS) of human serum. Day and nighttime serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers ranging from 2 to 89 years of age and used to measure melatonin and TAS. Results showed that both melatonin and TAS in human serum exhibited 24 hr variations with nocturnal peak values at 01:00 hr. Moreover, exposure of volunteers to light at night resulted in clear decreases of both TAS and melatonin. Furthermore, when melatonin was removed from sera collected at night, the TAS value of the sample was reduced to basal daytime values. In aging studies, it was found that nocturnal serum values of TAS and melatonin exhibited maximal values during the first four decades; thereafter, these values decreased as age advanced. In 60-year-old individuals, day/night differences in serum melatonin and TAS levels were clearly diminished, by more than 80%, with these differences being completely abolished in older individuals. Our results suggest that melatonin contributes to the total antioxidative capability of human serum. This antioxidant contribution of melatonin is reduced as age advances correlating with the age-related reduction of melatonin.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 719  
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Author (up) Bercz, P.A.; Jaffe, F. url  openurl
  Title Adverse health effects of shift work and shift work sleep disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Dialogue and Diagnosis Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 13-20  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 506  
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Author (up) Berson, D.M.; Dunn, F.A.; Takao, M. url  doi
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  Title Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 295 Issue 5557 Pages 1070-1073  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Axons/ultrastructure; *Biological Clocks; *Circadian Rhythm; Dendrites/ultrastructure; Isoquinolines; Kinetics; Light; *Light Signal Transduction; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Retinal Ganglion Cells/chemistry/cytology/*physiology; Rod Opsins/analysis/physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/cytology/*physiology  
  Abstract Light synchronizes mammalian circadian rhythms with environmental time by modulating retinal input to the circadian pacemaker-the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Such photic entrainment requires neither rods nor cones, the only known retinal photoreceptors. Here, we show that retinal ganglion cells innervating the SCN are intrinsically photosensitive. Unlike other ganglion cells, they depolarized in response to light even when all synaptic input from rods and cones was blocked. The sensitivity, spectral tuning, and slow kinetics of this light response matched those of the photic entrainment mechanism, suggesting that these ganglion cells may be the primary photoreceptors for this system.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912 USA. David_Berson@brown.edu  
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  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:11834835 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 720  
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Author (up) Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.; Ferrari, M.J.; Grais, R.F.; Djibo, A.; Grenfell, B.T. url  doi
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  Title Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1424-1427  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Cities; Emigration and Immigration; Epidemics; *Epidemiologic Methods; Humans; Light; Measles/*epidemiology/transmission; Niger/epidemiology; *Population Density; Remote Sensing Technology; *Seasons; Spacecraft  
  Abstract Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. nbharti@princeton.edu  
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  Notes PMID:22158822; PMCID:PMC3891598 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2770  
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