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Author Obayashi, K.; Saeki, K.; Iwamoto, J.; Ikada, Y.; Kurumatani, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to light at night and risk of depression in the elderly Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 151 Issue 1 Pages 331-336  
  Keywords Aged; Circadian Rhythm; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/*etiology; Female; Humans; Light/*adverse effects; Male; Melatonin/urine; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Circadian rhythm; Daytime light; Depression; Elderly; Light at night; Melatonin; Mental Health  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent advances in understanding the fundamental links between chronobiology and depressive disorders have enabled exploring novel risk factors for depression in the field of biological rhythms. Increased exposure to light at night (LAN) is common in modern life, and LAN exposure is associated with circadian misalignment. However, whether LAN exposure in home settings is associated with depression remains unclear. METHODS: We measured the intensities of nighttime bedroom light and ambulatory daytime light along with overnight urinary melatonin excretion (UME) in 516 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.8). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. RESULTS: The median nighttime light intensity was 0.8lx (interquartile range, 0.2-3.3). The depressed group (n=101) revealed significantly higher prevalence of LAN exposure (average intensity, >/= 5 lx) compared with that of the nondepressed group (n=415) using a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for daytime light exposure, insomnia, hypertension, sleep duration, and physical activity [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-3.25; P=0.02]. Consistently, another parameter of LAN exposure (duration of intensity >/= 10 lx, >/= 30 min) was significantly more prevalent in the depressed than in the nondepressed group (adjusted OR: 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.89; P=0.046). In contrast, UME was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. LIMITATION: Cross-sectional analysis. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that LAN exposure in home settings is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the general elderly population. The risk of depression may be reduced by keeping nighttime bedroom dark.  
  Address Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara, Japan. obayashi@naramed-u.ac.jp  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0165-0327 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23856285 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 165  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating the deleterious effects of light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication F1000 Medicine Reports Abbreviated Journal F1000 Med Rep  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages 18  
  Keywords Human Health; light at night; artificial light; circadian disruption; Review  
  Abstract Technological advances, while providing many benefits, often create circumstances that differ from the conditions in which we evolved. With the wide-spread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20(th) century, humans became exposed to bright and unnatural light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Electrical lighting has led to the wide-scale practice of 24-hour shift-work and has meant that what were once just “daytime” activities now run throughout the night; in many ways Western society now functions on a 24-hour schedule. Recent research suggests that this gain in freedom to function throughout the night may also come with significant repercussions. Disruption of our naturally evolved light and dark cycles can result in a wide range of physiological and behavioral changes with potentially serious medical implications. In this article we will discuss several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on cancer, mood, and obesity, as well as potential ways to ameliorate the impact of light at night.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1757-5931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21941596; PMCID:PMC3169904 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 241  
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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Author Boyce, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Review: The Impact of Light in Buildings on Human Health Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal Indoor and Built Environment  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 8-20  
  Keywords Human Health; indoor light; circadian disruption; shift work; oncogenesis; Review  
  Abstract The effects of light on health can be divided into three sections. The first is that of light as radiation. Exposure to the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation produced by light sources can damage both the eye and skin, through both thermal and photochemical mechanisms. Such damage is rare for indoor lighting installations designed for vision but can occur in some situations. The second is light operating through the visual system. Lighting enables us to see but lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort are likely to lead to eyestrain. Anyone who frequently experiences eyestrain is not enjoying the best of health. The lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort in buildings are well known and easily avoided. The third is light operating through the circadian system. This is known to influence sleep patterns and believed to be linked to the development of breast cancer among night shift workers. There is still much to learn about the impact of light on human health but what is known is enough to ensure that the topic requires the attention of all those concerned with the lighting of buildings.  
  Address Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1420-326X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 292  
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Author LeGates, T.A.; Fernandez, D.C.; Hattar, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Nature Reviews. Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Neurosci  
  Volume 15 Issue 7 Pages 443-454  
  Keywords Human Health; photobiology; circadian disruption; asynchronization; sleep; mood; Review  
  Abstract Light has profoundly influenced the evolution of life on earth. As widely appreciated, light enables us to generate images of our environment. However, light – through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) – also influences behaviours that are essential for our health and quality of life but are independent of image formation. These include the synchronization of the circadian clock to the solar day, tracking of seasonal changes and the regulation of sleep. Irregular light environments lead to problems in circadian rhythms and sleep, which eventually cause mood and learning deficits. Recently, it was found that irregular light can also directly affect mood and learning without producing major disruptions in circadian rhythms and sleep. In this Review, we discuss the indirect and direct influence of light on mood and learning, and provide a model for how light, the circadian clock and sleep interact to influence mood and cognitive functions.  
  Address 1] Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biology, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA. [2] Johns Hopkins University, Department of Neuroscience, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-003X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24917305 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 299  
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