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Author Blair, A. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Sark in the Dark: Wellbeing and Community on the Dark Sky Island of Sark Type Book Whole
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Society; ecopsychology; environmental psychology; psychology  
  Abstract Studies of the beneficial and transformative qualities of encounters with nature typically focus on ‘green’ or grounded nature. In 'Sark in the Dark', Ada Blair shifts this focus upwards to a refreshing encounter with the richness of the dark night sky. In this book, she documents the research she conducted while at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David into the culture and history of the world’s first designated Dark Sky Island. Through a series of interviews with Sark residents, as well as poignant self-reflections, Blair explores the importance of the dark sky on human wellbeing and community.  
  Address caladach(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sophia Centre Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Sophia Centre Master Monographs Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-1-907767-42-5 Medium Print  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1780  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780  
  Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology  
  Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.  
  Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18760107 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 643  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Determining the potential safety benefit of improved lighting in three pedestrian crash scenarios Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 638-647  
  Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Darkness/*adverse effects; *Environment Design; Humans; Lighting/*standards; Prevalence; Risk; *Safety; Time; *Visual Perception; *Walking  
  Abstract The influence of light level was determined for three pedestrian crash scenarios associated with three adaptive headlighting solutions-curve lighting, motorway lighting, and cornering light. These results were coupled to corresponding prevalence data for each scenario to derive measures of annual lifesaving potential. For each scenario, the risk associated with light level was determined using daylight saving time (DST) transitions to produce a dark/light interval risk ratio; prevalence was determined using the corresponding annual crash rate in darkness for each scenario. For curve lighting, pedestrian crashes on curved roadways were examined; for motorway lighting, crashes associated with high speed roadways were examined; and for cornering light, crashes involving turning vehicles at intersections were examined. In the curve analysis, lower dark/light crash ratios were observed for curved sections of roadway compared to straight roads. In the motorway analysis, posted speed limit was the dominant predictor of this ratio for the fatal crash dataset; road function class was the dominant predictor of the ratio for the fatal/nonfatal dataset. Finally, in the intersection crash analysis, the dark/light ratio for turning vehicles was lower than for nonturning vehicles; and the ratio at intersections was lower than at non-intersections. Relative safety need was determined by combining the dark/light ratio with prevalence data to produce an idealized measure of lifesaving potential. While all three scenarios suggested a potential for safety improvement, scenarios related to high speed roadway environments showed the greatest potential.  
  Address The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, USA. jsully@umich.edu <jsully@umich.edu>  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17126278 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 648  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Altermatt, F.; Ebert, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol Lett  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 20160111  
  Keywords Lepidoptera; Yponomeuta; adaptation; environmental change; natural selection  
  Abstract The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks.  
  Address Department of Environmental Sciences, Zoology, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27072407 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1420  
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