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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication (up) PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages e17307  
  Keywords Berlin; *Cities; *Ecosystem; Environmental Pollution/*adverse effects/analysis; *Light; Seasons; *Weather  
  Abstract The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this “ecological light pollution”. We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.  
  Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21399694; PMCID:PMC3047560 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 20  
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Author Summa, K.C.; Vitaterna, M.H.; Turek, F.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental perturbation of the circadian clock disrupts pregnancy in the mouse Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication (up) PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages e37668  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Environment; Female; Locomotion/physiology; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Photoperiod; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Reproduction/*physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The circadian clock has been linked to reproduction at many levels in mammals. Epidemiological studies of female shift workers have reported increased rates of reproductive abnormalities and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although whether the cause is circadian disruption or another factor associated with shift work is unknown. Here we test whether environmental disruption of circadian rhythms, using repeated shifts of the light:dark (LD) cycle, adversely affects reproductive success in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Young adult female C57BL/6J (B6) mice were paired with B6 males until copulation was verified by visual identification of vaginal plug formation. Females were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, phase-delay or phase-advance. Controls remained on a constant 12-hr light:12-hr dark cycle, whereas phase-delayed and phase-advanced mice were subjected to 6-hr delays or advances in the LD cycle every 5-6 days, respectively. The number of copulations resulting in term pregnancies was determined. Control females had a full-term pregnancy success rate of 90% (11/12), which fell to 50% (9/18; p<0.1) in the phase-delay group and 22% (4/18; p<0.01) in the phase-advance group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Repeated shifting of the LD cycle, which disrupts endogenous circadian timekeeping, dramatically reduces pregnancy success in mice. Advances of the LD cycle have a greater negative impact on pregnancy outcomes and, in non-pregnant female mice, require longer for circadian re-entrainment, suggesting that the magnitude or duration of circadian misalignment may be related to the severity of the adverse impact on pregnancy. These results explicitly link disruptions of circadian entrainment to adverse pregnancy outcomes in mammals, which may have important implications for the reproductive health of female shift workers, women with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and/or women with disturbed circadian rhythms for other reasons.  
  Address Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology, Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22649550; PMCID:PMC3359308 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 92  
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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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Author Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages e56563  
  Keywords Lighting; Animals; *Environmental Pollution; Humans; Insects; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects; Models, Theoretical; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. lamphar@gmail.com  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23441205; PMCID:PMC3575508 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 578  
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Author Chen, X.; Nordhaus, W.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using luminosity data as a proxy for economic statistics Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication (up) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 108 Issue 21 Pages 8589-8594  
  Keywords Developing Countries/history/*statistics & numerical data; *Extraterrestrial Environment; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; *Light; Methods; *Research Design; Socioeconomic Factors/*history  
  Abstract A pervasive issue in social and environmental research has been how to improve the quality of socioeconomic data in developing countries. Given the shortcomings of standard sources, the present study examines luminosity (measures of nighttime lights visible from space) as a proxy for standard measures of output (gross domestic product). We compare output and luminosity at the country level and at the 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grid-cell level for the period 1992-2008. We find that luminosity has informational value for countries with low-quality statistical systems, particularly for those countries with no recent population or economic censuses.  
  Address Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. xi.chen@yale.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21576474; PMCID:PMC3102367 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 122  
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