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Author John Bullough
Title Factors Affecting Sign Visibility, Conspicuity, and Legibility: Review and Annotated Bibliography Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Interdisciplinary Journal of Signage and Wayfinding Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 2-25
Keywords Lighting
Abstract This paper summarizes published research studies, technical reports and codes and standards related to the visibility (i.e., conspicuity and legibility) of signage. In the summary that follows, publications are grouped and discussed according to several different topics. First, the typographic and symbolic characteristics of signs and the information they carry are described (e.g., letter size, font selection, etc.); second, photometric, colorimetric and temporal properties of signs as they affect visibility; finally, environmental considerations (e.g., daytime versus nighttime viewing, whether a sign is located in a rural or urban area, etc.) as they influence sign design are reviewed. Annotated summaries of each publication in the literature review are included at the end of this paper.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1762
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Author Riad Saraiji, M. Saju Oommen
Title Light Pollution Index (LPI): An Integrated Approach to Study Light Pollution with Street Lighting and Façade Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 9 Issue 2 Pages 127-145
Keywords Planning; Lighting
Abstract Rather than being complementary, street lighting and façade lighting are typically designed independently of each other. As a result, light from street lighting luminaires might spill onto building façades and influence characteristics of the façade lighting including required light levels and color. Conversely, façade lighting might reflect onto the street and contribute to the street illumination. This manuscript presents an integrated approach to analyzing the interaction between the street and façade lighting in consideration of light pollution control. A generic street model with various calculation grids was studied. It was found that a moderately lit façade contributes to a horizontal illuminance of 5 lux or more on the street and a vertical illuminance of 4 lux or more 1.5 m above the sidewalk. An over-illuminated street may result when both street and façade lighting exist without reference to each other. The size of the light-pollution calculation grid and the use of a 3-D illuminance graph were studied. It was found that fluctuations in the calculated amount of light pollution could occur unless the size of the pollution calculation grid is large enough to capture all of the upward flux. A method of achieving the optimal size of the calculation grid is demonstrated. Shortcomings of using light pollution percentage as a light pollution index are highlighted and an alternative light pollution index is proposed.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1764
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Author S Fotios, J Uttley
Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 50 Issue Pages 390-404
Keywords Vision; Lighting
Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765
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Author S Fotios, HF Castleton
Title Lighting for cycling in the UK—A review Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 381-395
Keywords Lighting; Planning; Public Safety
Abstract While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that the current lighting regulations and recommendations for cycling and cyclists are the best that can be achieved or are even adequate for these purposes. A number of actions are suggested that should enable lighting’s contribution to the safety of cyclists to be realized.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1766
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Author Fotios, S., Price, T
Title Road lighting and accidents: Why lighting is not the only answer Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 82 Issue 5 Pages 22-26
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Tony Price and Steve Fotios point out that while road lighting can be a significant counter measure to accidents, and that higher levels might help, the presence of road lighting does not guarantee all accidents will be avoided.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1767
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