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Author Cho, H.M.; Lee, M.K.; Chang, S.J.; Kim, S.
Title Analysis on Luminance of Outdoor Signboards of Commercial Areas in Seoul at Night Considering Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of The Korean Society of Living Environment System Abbreviated Journal J. Korean Soc. Living Environ. Sys
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 583-595-589
Keywords Lighting; Light pollution; Commercial areas; Night-time lighting; Outdoor Signboards; Luminance; outdoor lighting; artificial light at night; signs; LED signs; LED billboards
Abstract (up) As the city is commercialized, the number of stores is increased and it also makes outdoor billboards’ number increased accordingly. And signboards on the street make pedestrians unpleasant, making light pollution by light reflection. In this study, we measured the luminance to target the outdoor signboards of commercial area in Seoul. On the basis of the obtained results, the External system showed high luminance values, and the luminance values of Letter-type system were lower. Furthermore, the measured value at the midnight time was higher, and we considered that the more floating population bring about the high luminance value of the External system. The signboards of External system should be avoided, the Letter-type system should be recommended.
Address School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea; skim(at)ssu.ac.kr
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1319
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Author Hale, J.D.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Davies, G.; Sadler, J.P.
Title The ecological impact of city lighting scenarios: exploring gap crossing thresholds for urban bats Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Connectivity; Lighting; Movement; Pipistrellus pipistrellus; Scenarios; Urban; Urbanization; gap crossing
Abstract (up) As the global population urbanises, dramatic changes are expected in city lighting and the urban form, which may threaten the functioning of urban ecosystems and the services they deliver. However, little is known about the ecological impact of lighting in different urban contexts. Movement is an important ecological process that can be disrupted by artificial lighting. We explored the impact of lighting on gap crossing for Pipistrellus pipistrellus, a species of bat (Chiroptera) common within UK cities. We aimed to determine whether the probability of crossing gaps in tree cover varied with crossing distance and lighting level, through stratified field surveys. We then used the resulting data on barrier thresholds to model the landscape resistance due to lighting across an entire city and explored the potential impact of scenarios for future changes to street lighting. The level of illumination required to create a barrier effect reduced as crossing distance increased. For those gaps where crossing was recorded, bats selected the darker parts of gaps. Heavily built parts of the case study city were associated with large and brightly lit gaps, and spatial models indicate movement would be highly restricted in these areas. Under a scenario for brighter street lighting, the area of accessible land-cover was further reduced in heavily built parts of the city. We believe that this is the first study to demonstrate how lighting may create resistance to species movement throughout an entire city. That connectivity in urban areas is being disrupted for a relatively common species raises questions about the impacts on less tolerant groups and the resilience of bat communities in urban centres. However, this mechanistic approach raises the possibility that some ecological function could be restored in these areas through the strategic dimming of lighting and narrowing of gaps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:25644403 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1100
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Author Long, X.; Tie, X.; Zhou, J.; Dai, W.; Li, X.; Feng, T.; Li, G.; Cao, J.; An, Z.
Title Impact of the Green Light Program on haze in the North China Plain, China Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Chem. Phys.
Volume 19 Issue 17 Pages 11185-11197
Keywords Economics; Lighting; Planning
Abstract (up) As the world's largest developing country, China has undergone ever-increasing demand for electricity during the past few decades. In 1996, China launched the Green Light Program (GLP), which became a national energy conservation activity for saving lighting electricity as well as an effective reduction of the coal consumption for power generation. Despite the great success of the GLP, its effects on haze have not been investigated and well understood. This study focused on assessing the potential coal saving induced by the improvement of luminous efficacy, the core of the GLP, and on estimating the consequent effects on the haze in the North China Plain (NCP), where a large number of power plants are located and are often engulfed by severe haze. The estimated potential coal saving induced by the GLP can reach a massive value of 120–323 million tons, accounting for 6.7 %–18.0 % of the total coal consumption for thermal power generation in China. There was a massive potential emission reduction of air pollutants from thermal power generation in the NCP, which was estimated to be 20.0–53.8 Gg for NOx and 6.9–18.7 Gg for SO2 in December 2015. The potential emission reduction induced by the GLP plays important roles in the haze formation, because the NOx and SO2 are important precursors for the formation of particles. To assess the impact of the GLP on haze, sensitivity studies were conducted by applying a regional chemical–dynamical model (WRF-CHEM). The model results suggest that in the case of lower-limit emission reduction, the PM2.5 concentration decreased by 2–5 µg m−3 in large areas of the NCP. In the case of upper-limit emission reduction, there was much more remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentration (4–10 µg m−3). This study is a good example to illustrate that scientific innovation can induce important benefits for environment issues such as haze.
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ISSN 1680-7324 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2671
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Author Kempenaers, B.; Borgstrom, P.; Loes, P.; Schlicht, E.; Valcu, M.
Title Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 20 Issue 19 Pages 1735-1739
Keywords Animals; Environmental Pollution; Female; Light; *Lighting; Male; *Reproduction; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Time Factors; *Vocalization, Animal
Abstract (up) Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.
Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany. b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:20850324 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 51
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Author Price, B.; Baker, E.
Title NightLife: A cheap, robust, LED based light trap for collecting aquatic insects in remote areas Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biodiversity Data Journal Abbreviated Journal Bdj
Volume 4 Issue Pages e7648
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting
Abstract (up) Background

There are approximately one hundred thousand aquatic insect species currently known to science and this figure is likely a significant underestimation. The ecology of aquatic insect groups has been studied due to their role as bioindicators of water quality and in the case of Diptera, their role as vectors of disease. Light trapping targets emergent adults, using mercury vapour bulbs or actinic fluorescent tubes, however these light sources are unsuitable for sampling remote regions due to their power requirements, which limit their mobility. Most insects studied have three types of photoreceptors corresponding to UV, blue and green light.

New information

We describe the NightLife: a cheap, robust, portable, LED based light source which targets insect trichromatic vision, is capable of autonomous operation and is powered by a single AA battery. Field trials show that the NightLife is capable of collecting sufficient samples of 12 insect orders, including all aquatic orders commonly collected by traditional light trapping and compares favourably with actinic fluorescent tubes and white LEDs. Future development in LED technology will likely result in LEDs replacing traditional light sources for collecting insects more widely.
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ISSN 1314-2836 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1398
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