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Author (down) Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S.
Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854
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Author (down) Sandeva, V.; Despot, K.
Title The effects of lighting exterior and interior design Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Innovation and Entrepreneurship Abbreviated Journal Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 10-20
Keywords lighting; interior lighting; exterior lighting; design; space
Abstract Light, whether natural or artificial is a very important element in interior and exterior design. It actually helps us to see color because color is visible to our eye because the substances of which was obtained reflect wavelengths of light. Light as an element of design influences other elements. It can make the space large or small, showy and bright or dark and unpleasant. Places that are well-lit with clean, clear light make the space seem larger, while the fading light and shadows

that fall on the walls create a sense of enclosed space. The light can change the color of the visible identity by color and type of light that falls on the surface.
Address Goce Delcev University – Stip, Department of Architecture and Design, R. Macedonia; vaska.sandeva(at)ugd.edu.mk
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Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1654
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Author (down) S Fotios, J Uttley
Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 50 Issue Pages 390-404
Keywords Vision; Lighting
Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765
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Author (down) S Fotios, HF Castleton
Title Lighting for cycling in the UK—A review Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 381-395
Keywords Lighting; Planning; Public Safety
Abstract While UK governments have recently sought to increase cycling activity, it remains a minority interest. One reason for this is the perceived danger of cycling on roads filled with traffic. There is statistical evidence to support this perception; for equal exposure, cyclists are more likely to be seriously injured than either drivers or pedestrians. Lighting has a role to play in reducing the hazards of cycling by enhancing the visibility and conspicuity of cyclists. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that the current lighting regulations and recommendations for cycling and cyclists are the best that can be achieved or are even adequate for these purposes. A number of actions are suggested that should enable lighting’s contribution to the safety of cyclists to be realized.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1766
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Author (down) S Fotios, C Cheal, S Fox,
Title The transition between lit and unlit sections of road and detection of driving hazards after dark Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 243-261
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Lighting; Planning
Abstract An experiment to investigate peripheral detection performance during a driver’s transition between lit and unlit sections of road was undertaken. The results suggest that when a driver moves from a lit to an unlit section of road their detection performance decreases almost immediately to that expected for the conditions of the unlit section and that there is no significant change in the subsequent 20-minute period. Tests were conducted at three luminances (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 cd/m2): while an increase from 0.1 to 1.0 cd/m2 improved detection, a further increase to 2.0 cd/m2 did not. Lighting of two S/P ratios (0.65, 1.40) was examined at 1.0 cd/m2: this did not suggest an effect on detection performance. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the current context, visual performance reached a plateau at 1.0 cd/m2.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1769
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