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Author (down) Schulte-Römer, N.
Title What is French about the “French fear of darkness”? The co-production of imagined communities of light and energy Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Energy History Revue d'Histoire de l'Energie Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages
Keywords History; Society; Energy; Lighting; France
Abstract This essay takes expert assumptions about light preferences as a starting point for a historical inquiry into what I call imagined sociotechnical communities of light and energy. My argument is that historical energy supply systems produced these imaginaries and vice versa, shifting the scales at which public lighting was envisioned and darkness was acceptable. While in the 17th C. dark streets were the norm and even the illumination of single streets was publically contested, innovators of the 18th C. imagined gas light and energy on an urban scale. In the 20th C., electric lighting promoted electrification and the electricity supply systems in countries like France allowed experts to think and standardize lighting at a national level. In the 21st C. the expert imaginary of a light-loving French people is challenged by public environmental concern.
Address Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2709
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Author (down) Schröter-Schlaack, C.; Schulte-Römer, N.; Revermann, C.
Title Lichtverschmutzung – Ausmaß, gesellschaftliche und ökologische Auswirkungen sowie Handlungsansätze Type Report
Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 186 Issue Pages 1-200
Keywords Review; Skyglow; Ecology; Human Health; Lighting; Public Safety; Remote Sensing
Abstract Künstliches Licht kann als eine der größten technischen Errungenschaften der Menschheit angesehen werden, die erhebliche Veränderungen bzw. Fortschritte der Arbeits- und Lebensweisen ermöglichen. Mit künstlicher Beleuchtung wird aber auch der natürliche Rhythmus von Tag und Nacht verändert und damit das Gesamtgefüge des Naturhaushaltes und der Nachtlandschaft transformiert. Ein natürlich dunkler Nachthimmel ist in Deutschland selten geworden. Licht-glocken über urbanen Gebieten sind weit weg von ihrem Entstehungsort in unbeleuchteten Gebieten noch sichtbar und lassen Sterne und die Milchstraße unkenntlich werden. Nicht nur das direkte elektrische Licht erleuchtet unsere Umwelt, sondern auch der nach oben abgestrahlte und reflektierte Teil des Lichts. Schichten der Atmosphäre, Staub oder Wassertropfen reflektieren und streuen das Licht. Dieser auch als Skyglow bezeichnete Effekt bewirkt eine zusätzliche Erhellung. Neben dieser künstlich erhöhten Himmelshelligkeit kann Licht auch die direkte Umgebung ungewollt aufhellen oder durch Blendung das Sehen einschränken. Licht ist ein wichtiger externer Zeitgeber für die innere Uhr der Lebewesen, an dessen natürlichen Rhythmus sich Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen über Jahrhunderte angepasst haben. So wird vermutet, dass die permanent und periodisch veränderten Lichtverhältnisse durch zunehmende künstliche Beleuchtung negative Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit haben und ebenso zu ökologischen Beeinträchtigungen führen.All diese nichtintendierten Wirkungen der künstlichen Beleuchtung werden unter dem Sammelbegriff Lichtverschmutzung verstanden. Lichtverschmutzung ist hier definiert als unerwünschte Wirkung künstlicher Beleuchtung im Außenbereich, also das Licht, das räumlich (Richtung und Fläche), zeitlich (Tages- und Jahreszeit, Dauer, Periodizität) oder in der Intensität oder spektralen Zusammensetzung (z.B. Ultraviolett- oder Blauanteil) über den reinen Beleuchtungszweck hinaus nicht beabsichtigte Auswirkungen hat (Kuechly et al. 2018). Mit dem vorliegenden Bericht werden der wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis-stand im Hinblick auf Umfang und Trends der Lichtverschmutzung sowie ihre wirtschaftlichen und soziokulturellen, humanmedizinischen und ökologischen Wirkungen zusammengefasst. Auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse und aktueller beleuchtungstechnologischer und lichtplanerischer Möglichkeiten werden Handlungsoptionen abgeleitet, die eine Verringerung der Lichtverschmutzung bei gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der nutzbringenden Ziele der Beleuchtung unterstützen können.
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Publisher Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB) Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3058
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Author (down) Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-33
Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review
Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470
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Author (down) Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Light Pollution Reduction Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords ligting technology; awareness; skyglow, lighting design
Abstract Artificial light at night is an irreplaceable technology for our society and its activities at nighttime. But this indispensable tool has detrimental side effects, which have only come to light in the past 10–20 years. This chapter reviews ways to implement technology in order to lower the impact of artificial light at night on nature and humans. Further, it provides guidelines for environmental protection and scientific approaches to reduce the increase in light pollution and discusses the urgent need for further research. Measures to prevent obtrusive light and unintentional trespass into homes and natural habitats are

mostly simple solutions like shielding luminaires and predominantly require awareness. Shades are another effective tool to reduce trespass from interior lights. Especially in greenhouses, the use of shades significantly reduces the contribution to skyglow. Artificial light should be switched off whenever it is not needed. Smart, flexible lighting systems can help to use artificial light with precision. The choice of the appropriate illumination has to be balanced by the needs for optimal visibility, human well-being, environmental conservation and protection of the night sky. For visibility, conditions comparable to bright moonlit nights (0.3 lx) are sufficient. Low-level streetlights that produce only 1–3 lx at the surface meet the requirement of facial cognition. Although this light level might be too low for road safety, a consideration of maximum illumination levels in street lighting is recommended. The spectral power distribution of illuminants can impact several environmental parameters. For example, illuminants emitting short wavelengths can sup- press melatonin in higher vertebrates (including humans), are attracting many insect species, and contribute in skyglow above average. Recent findings in different measures for energy efficiency of illuminants at scotopic or mesopic vision conditions compared to photopic conditions indicate that the assessment of lighting products needs fundamental revision. Further research is crucially needed to create refuges for light-sensitive species at night, to measure the impact of artificial light on nature, and also to monitor the improvements of light pollution-reducing measures. Decrees in various regions have helped to lower the impact of artificial light at night significantly. Measures to reduce the impact of artificial light at night need to be carefully balanced with the surrounding environment. Thoughtful guidelines are crucial to reducing the rapid increase in sky brightness worldwide. These guidelines need to be made accessible for decision makers especially in areas which require new light installations.
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Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Editor Karlicek, Robert Sun, Ching-Chern Zissis, Georgis Ma, Ruiqing
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1569
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Author (down) Schreuder, D.A.
Title Pollution-Free Road Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Transactions of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Trans. Int. Astron. Union
Volume 24 Issue 03 Pages 364
Keywords Lighting; Skyglow
Abstract The beneficial effects of road lighting are often seen as very important. They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in ‘low’ income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in ‘high’ income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form ‘sky glow’. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0251-107X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1726
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