|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author (up) Gaston, K.J.
Title Sustainability: A green light for efficiency Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 497 Issue 7451 Pages 560-561
Keywords Editorial; Animals; Atmosphere/chemistry; Carbon Dioxide/analysis; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Conservation of Energy Resources/economics/*methods/*trends; Global Warming/prevention & control; Humans; Lighting/*economics/instrumentation/statistics & numerical data/*trends; Public Health
Abstract
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23719447 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 459
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J.
Title Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Environmental Reviews Abbreviated Journal Environ. Rev.
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 323-330
Keywords diurnal; lighting; night; nocturnal; light pollution; light at night; Photoperiodism; demography; demographics; population dynamics
Abstract Artificial lighting, especially but not exclusively through street lights, has transformed the nighttime environment in much of the world. Impacts have been identified across multiple levels of biological organization and process. The influences, however, on population dynamics, particularly through the combined effects on the key demographic rates (immigration, births, deaths, emigration) that determine where individual species occur and in what numbers, have not previously been well characterized. The majority of attention explicitly on demographic parameters to date has been placed on the attraction of organisms to lights, and thus effectively local immigration, the large numbers of individuals that can be involved, and then to some extent the mortality that can often result. Some of the most important influences of nighttime lighting, however, are likely more subtle and less immediately apparent to the human observer. Particularly significant are effects of nighttime lighting on demography that act through (i) circadian clocks and photoperiodism and thence on birth rates; (ii) time partitioning and thence on death rates; and (iii) immigration/emigration through constraining the movements of individuals amongst habitat networks, especially as a consequence of continuously lit linear features such as roads and footpaths. Good model organisms are required to enable the relative consequences of such effects to be effectively determined, and a wider consideration of the effects of artificial light at night is needed in demographic studies across a range of species.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Canadian Science Publishing Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1181-8700 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 317
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A.
Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review
Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gómez, C.; Mitchell, C.A.
Title Physiological and Productivity Responses of High-wire Tomato as Affected by Supplemental Light Source and Distribution within the Canopy Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science Abbreviated Journal J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
Volume 141 Issue 2 Pages 196-208
Keywords Plants; tomato; LED; LED lighting; Solanum lycopersicum; intracanopy lighting; greenhouses; intracanopy supplemental lighting; daily light integral
Abstract The relative coolness-to-touch of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has enabled commercial implementation of intracanopy lighting (ICL) in the greenhouse. Intracanopy lighting, which refers to the strategy of lighting along the side or from within the foliar canopy, can increase canopy photosynthetic activity, but physiological and productivity responses of high-wire greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to intracanopy supplemental lighting (SL) still are not yet fully understood. Two consecutive production experiments were conducted across seasons in a glass-glazed greenhouse located in a midnorthern, continental climate [lat. 40°N (West Lafayette, IN)]. Plants were grown from winter-to-summer [increasing solar daily light integral (DLI)] and from summer-to-winter (decreasing solar DLI) to compare three SL strategies for high-wire tomato production across changing solar DLIs: top lighting with high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) vs. intracanopy LED vertical towers vs. hybrid SL (HPS + horizontal ICL-LEDs). A control treatment also was included for which no SL was provided. Supplemental DLI for each experimental period was adjusted monthly, to complement seasonal changes in sunlight, aiming to approach a target total DLI of 25 mol·m‒2·d‒1 during fruit set. Harvest parameters (total fruit fresh weight, number of fruit harvested, and average cluster fresh weight), tissue temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence, and stomatal conductance (gS) were unaffected by SL treatment in both experiments. Among the physiological parameters evaluated, CO2 assimilation measured under light-saturating conditions, light-limited quantum-use efficiency, and maximum gross CO2 assimilation (Amax) proved to be good indicators of how ICL reduces the top-to-bottom decline in leaf photosynthetic activity otherwise measured with top lighting only (HPS-SL or solar). Although SL generally increased fruit yield relative to control, lack of SL treatment differences among harvest parameters indicates that higher crop photosynthetic activity did not increase fruit yield. Compared with control, intracanopy SL increased yield to the same extent as top SL, but the remaining photoassimilate from ICL most likely was partitioned to maintain nonharvested, vegetative plant parts as well.
Address Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Society for Horticultural Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Engligh Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-1062 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1431
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ge, A.; Du, Z.; Wang, W.; Qiu, P.; Wang, J.; Cai, J.; Song, X.
Title A composite optical system for a LED based headlamp low beam module Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 752-757
Keywords Lighting
Abstract In this paper, we propose a composite optical system for automotive headlamps. The system is composed of a paraboloid collimating reflector, an off-axis paraboloid reflector, a baffle and an imaging len. By using a LED as the light source, precise light distribution can be achieved. When making ray-tracing simulation for the composite optical system in TracePro, a clear cut-off line can be seen on the measuring screen, as well as a hotspot at the centre. The power consumption for the LED light sources in this system is less than 10 W, resulting in an energy efficiency of more than 58% and a maximum illumination of 26.76 lux at the centre hotspot.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 632
Permanent link to this record