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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J.
Title Determining the potential safety benefit of improved lighting in three pedestrian crash scenarios Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 638-647
Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Darkness/*adverse effects; *Environment Design; Humans; Lighting/*standards; Prevalence; Risk; *Safety; Time; *Visual Perception; *Walking
Abstract The influence of light level was determined for three pedestrian crash scenarios associated with three adaptive headlighting solutions-curve lighting, motorway lighting, and cornering light. These results were coupled to corresponding prevalence data for each scenario to derive measures of annual lifesaving potential. For each scenario, the risk associated with light level was determined using daylight saving time (DST) transitions to produce a dark/light interval risk ratio; prevalence was determined using the corresponding annual crash rate in darkness for each scenario. For curve lighting, pedestrian crashes on curved roadways were examined; for motorway lighting, crashes associated with high speed roadways were examined; and for cornering light, crashes involving turning vehicles at intersections were examined. In the curve analysis, lower dark/light crash ratios were observed for curved sections of roadway compared to straight roads. In the motorway analysis, posted speed limit was the dominant predictor of this ratio for the fatal crash dataset; road function class was the dominant predictor of the ratio for the fatal/nonfatal dataset. Finally, in the intersection crash analysis, the dark/light ratio for turning vehicles was lower than for nonturning vehicles; and the ratio at intersections was lower than at non-intersections. Relative safety need was determined by combining the dark/light ratio with prevalence data to produce an idealized measure of lifesaving potential. While all three scenarios suggested a potential for safety improvement, scenarios related to high speed roadway environments showed the greatest potential.
Address The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, USA. jsully@umich.edu <jsully@umich.edu>
Corporate Author (up) Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17126278 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 648
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Author Viikari, M.
Title Modeling spectral sensitivity at low light levels based on mesopic visual performance Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Clin Ophthalmol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 173–185
Keywords Lighting
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 649
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Author Walkling, A.; Schierz, C.
Title Comparison between the CIE and LITG Method for Minimizing Obtrusive Glare Caused by Bright Luminaires in the Field Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication In CIE 27th Session Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 139–143
Keywords Lighting
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 650
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Author Yau, K.K.W.
Title Risk factors affecting the severity of single vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 333-340
Keywords Lighting; Injury severity; Logistic regression models; Risk factors; Single vehicle accident
Abstract A population-based case–control study was conducted to examine factors affecting the severity of single vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong. In particular, single vehicle accident data of three major vehicle types, namely private vehicles, goods vehicles and motorcycles, which contributed to over 80% of all single vehicle accidents during the 2-year-period 1999–2000, were considered. Data were obtained from the newly implemented traffic accident data system (TRADS), which was developed jointly by the Transport Department, Police Force and Information Technology Services Department, Hong Kong. The effect of district, human, vehicle, safety, environmental and site factors on injury severity of an accident was examined. Unique risk factors associated with each of the vehicle types were identified by means of stepwise logistic regression models. For private vehicles, district board, gender of driver, age of vehicle, time of the accident and street light conditions are significant factors determining injury severity. For goods vehicles, seat-belt usage and weekday occurrence are the only two significant factors associated with injury severity. For motorcycles, age of vehicle, weekday and time of the accident were determined to be important factors affecting the injury severity. Identification of potential risk factors pertinent to the particular vehicle type has important implications to relevant official organisations in modifying safety measures in order to reduce the occurrence of severe traffic accidents, which would help to promote a safe road environment.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 651
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Author Krause, G. H.; Weis, E.
Title Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool in plant physiology. II. Interpretation of fluorescence signals. Type Journal Article
Year 1984 Publication Photosynthesis Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue Pages 139–157
Keywords Lighting
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Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 655
Permanent link to this record