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Author Peña-García, A.; Sędziwy, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Optimizing Lighting of Rural Roads and Protected Areas with White Light: A Compromise among Light Pollution, Energy Savings, and Visibility Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Leukos Abbreviated Journal Leukos  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 15502724.2019.1574138  
  Keywords Lighting; Energy; Skyglow; LED  
  Abstract The broad implementation of light emitting diode (LED) light sources in public lighting has become a revolution in recent years. Their low power consumption and good performance (extremely low onset time, long lifetime, high efficacy) make LEDs an optimal solution in most outdoor applications. In addition, the white light emitted by the vast majority of LEDs used in public lighting and their good color rendering improve well-being, comfort, and safety in cities, especially in commercial zones and urban centers. However, regulations on light pollution that have been developed in some countries in parallel to the introduction of LED lighting impose strong constraints to white light emission, which is present due to the higher Rayleigh scattering of short wavelengths. These regulations request filtering blue wavelengths in some protected areas and thus limit the projects to high- or low-pressure sodium sources or amber LEDs. In this work, the pros and cons of white and amber LED lighting in rural areas are analyzed and compared through simulations made on a typical rural lighting situation and considerations based on efficiency, visual performance, nonvisual effects, and light pollution. The most important conclusion is that Rayleigh scattering seems to prevail in the current considerations on light pollution, whereas other important aspects affecting safety and sustainability are are not considered. Accurate designs can decrease light pollution without constraints against white LEDs. The objective of this work is to provide evidence leading to consider light pollution from a more general perspective in the benefit of humans and the environment.  
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  ISSN (down) 1550-2724 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2380  
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Author Valentová, M.; Quicheron, M.; Bertoldi, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title LED Projects and Economic Test Cases in Europe Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Green Energy Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Green Energy  
  Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 843-851  
  Keywords Economics; Lighting  
  Abstract Solid-State Lighting (SSL) is a fast evolving, promising energy-efficient technology, offering a wide range of potential uses. The article presents the status of the existing light emitting diode (LED) pilot actions in Europe, analyzing 106 LED test cases from 17 European countries. Projects from the public and commercial sectors form the focus of this article, with special attention devoted to the economics of LED projects – particularly in terms of energy savings. The results of the test cases demonstrate wide variation. Installations offer energy savings of 59% on average (savings range from 10% to more than 90%). In many applications, LEDs are competitive (with payback time ranging from two to 10 years), yet a large number of projects are still in the trial phase. From the test cases reviewed, the most successful applications are, in terms of savings and economic considerations, replacement of both (1) incandescent light bulbs in traffic light systems, and (2) halogen spotlights in indoor applications. The LED projects bring many co-benefits, including lower maintenance costs, improved lighting characteristics, or improved ambience. Some challenges remain to be addressed, such as to improve the quality characteristics of LEDs and the quality of information and data provided by manufacturers/suppliers, and optimality of LED technology for existing street lighting systems.  
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  ISSN (down) 1543-5075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1631  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788  
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Author Boyce, P.; Fotios, S.; Richards, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting and energy saving Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 245-260  
  Keywords public policy; roadway lighting; energy consumption  
  Abstract This paper examines how the lighting of roads in the UK might be changed so as to preserve the benefits while minimising energy consumption. It is divided into four sections, these being changes in technology, changes in patterns of use, changes in standards and contracts and changes in the basis of design. Useful changes in technology and patterns of use are available now, but their use will raise the question as to whether or not environmental considerations can override conventional financial constraints. Changes in standards and the basis of design are much more long term. Comparisons of road lighting standards used in different countries show significant differences that deserve examination. As for the basis of design, consideration of the importance of light to fatal and personal injury accidents of different types suggests that road lighting should be concentrated where pedestrians are common, not where speeds are highest. Ultimately, considering carefully what problem road lighting is intended to solve and whether or not road lighting is the best answer is the key to minimising the energy consumption of road lighting without diminishing road safety.  
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  ISSN (down) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 249  
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Author Kuhn, L.; Johansson, M.; Laike, T.; Goven, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Residents' perceptions following retrofitting of residential area outdoor lighting with LEDs Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 568-584  
  Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; LED; light emitting diode; lighting levels; public opinion  
  Abstract The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in outdoor lighting has energy-saving potential, but users’ responses to this light source are largely unknown. An intervention study in two residential areas compared conventional lighting installations (high pressure sodium in Area 1 and high pressure mercury in Area 2) to a retrofitted LED-alternative regarding residents’ perceptions of quality of light, visual accessibility and danger. Moreover, energy use was calculated. Residents’ (N = 60) visual accessibility improved and perceived danger remained low in both areas after retrofitting. In Area 2 the perceived quality of light increased, whereas in Area 1 the results were mixed. The retrofitted application reduced energy use by 41–76% and might be a feasible alternative to conventional outdoor lighting in relatively safe areas.  
  Address Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden  
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  ISSN (down) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 280  
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