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Author Li, Q.F.; Yang, G.X.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A survey of the luminance distribution in the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas and the control of luminance of floodlit buildings Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 185-189  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract A survey of the luminance distribution of the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas, which included 11 locations and 16 buildings, was made. The 11 locations could be categorized as commercial, administration, leisure or residential. The average environmental luminance of these was recorded. The authors identified the effects of excessive exterior lighting. The luminance was measured and subjective appraisals made of 16 buildings. The writers have developed an empirical formula for arriving at the brightness level rating for floodlit buildings and recommended corresponding working ranges of luminance.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2715  
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Author Żagan, W.; Skarżyński, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The “layered method” – A third method of floodlighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The main aim of this work is to present a new method of floodlighting – the ‘Layered Method’. It has been possible to create this method due to the rapid development of linear luminaires with LEDs. When luminaires are located a very short distance from an illuminated wall and are directed at a low angle, the layered floodlighting method gives an unusual and interesting visual effect. In this situation, the length of light distribution on the illuminated wall is the same as the length of the light line and is rather short in width. This gives the opportunity of creating the effect of a layer of light, which can be used, for example, to illuminate Renaissance tenement houses and all types of longitudinal architectural details, such as tympanums or balusters. This paper presents the state-of-the-art use of the layered method of floodlighting. All advantages and disadvantages, in terms of lighting technology and architecture, are carefully described. The ideas contained in this paper could be useful for those who are interested in making architectural objects more beautiful by means of illumination at night-time.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2807  
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S., J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Parking lot lighting based upon predictions of scene brightness and personal safety Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 293-304  
  Keywords Lightingl Security; parking lots; public perceptions; lighting levels  
  Abstract Providing subjective impressions of security is central to outdoor lighting design. Current parking lot lighting recommendations are based upon photopic illuminances, regardless of spectrum. Scene brightness perception is directly related to impressions of security, and depends upon both light level and spectrum. A provisional model was used to predict scene brightness for three parking lots, each illuminated to different levels by different light sources. Observers judged scene brightness, security and other factors for each lot. The provisional model accurately predicted both scene brightness and security judgements. The lighting associated with the best subjective ratings also had the lowest power density. A design method using ‘brightness illuminance’ is presented, which can lower system costs while maintaining a sense of security by users.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Email: ream(at)rpi.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1477-0938 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1256  
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Author Bauer, S.E.; Wagner, S.E.; Burch, J.; Bayakly, R.; Vena, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 23  
  Keywords Human Health; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Georgia/epidemiology; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Registries; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. METHODS: Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000-2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992-2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0-20 watts per sterradian cm(2)), medium (21-41 watts per sterradian cm(2)), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm(2)). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15-50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. secbauer@ufl.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1476-072X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23594790; PMCID:PMC3651306 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 718  
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies  
  Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
 
  Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (down) 1470-2738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224  
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