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Author Verovnik, R.; Fiser, Z.; Zaksek, V.
Title How to reduce the impact of artificial lighting on moths: a case study on cultural heritage sites in Slovenia Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal for Nature Conservation Abbreviated Journal J. for Nature Conservation
Volume 28 Issue (up) Pages 105–111
Keywords Animals; Lighting; Ecology; ecological light pollution; moth diversity; flight-to-light; artificial illumination; Lepidoptera; Slovenis; Europe
Abstract In an ever more artificially illuminated world, common moth behaviour, flight-to-light, causes declines in their abundance and diversity that can have severe impacts on ecosystems. To test if it is possible to reduce the number of moths attracted to artificially illuminated objects, the original lighting of 15 cultural heritage buildings in Slovenia was substituted with blue or yellow lighting. These three illumination types differed in the amount of luminance, percentage of UV and short-wavelength light which are known to affect flight-to-light of moths. During our three-year field study approximately 20% of all known moth species in Slovenia were recorded. The blue and yellow illumination type attracted up to six times less specimens and up to four times less species compared to the original illumination type. This was true for all detected moths as well as within separate moth groups. This gives our study a high conservation value: usage of alternative, environmentally more acceptable illumination can greatly reduce the number of moths attracted to artificially illuminated objects.
Address University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Department of Biology, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; valerija.zaksek(at)bf.uni-lj.si
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1617-1381 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1268
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Author Rocha, H.; Peretta, I.S.; Lima, G.F.M.; Marques, L.G.; Yamanaka, K.
Title Exterior lighting computer-automated design based on multi-criteria parallel evolutionary algorithm: optimized designs for illumination quality and energy efficiency Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Expert Systems with Applications Abbreviated Journal Expert Systems with Applications
Volume 45 Issue (up) Pages 208-222
Keywords Lighting
Abstract A proper professional lighting design implies in a continuous search for the best compromise between both low power consumption and better lighting quality. This search converts this design into a hard to solve multi-objective optimization problem. Evolutionary algorithms are widely used to attack that type of hard optimization problems. However, professionals could not benefit from that kind of assistance since evolutionary algorithms have been unexplored by several commercial lighting design computer-aided softwares. This work proposes a system based on evolutionary algorithms which implement a computer-automated exterior lighting design both adequate to irregular shaped areas and able to respect lighting pole positioning constraints. The desired lighting design is constructed using a cluster of computers supported by a web client, turning this application into an efficient and easy tool to reduce project cycles, increase quality of results and decrease calculation times. This ELCAutoD-EA system consists in a proposal for a parallel multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to be executed in a cluster of computers with a Java remote client. User must choose lighting pole heights, allowed lamps and fixtures, as well as the simplified blue print of the area to be illuminated, marking the sub-areas with restrictions to pole positioning. The desired average illuminance must also be informed as well as the accepted tolerance. Based on user informed data, the developed application uses a dynamic representation of variable size as a chromosome and the cluster executes the evolutionary algorithm using the Island model paradigm. Achieved solutions comply with the illumination standards requirements and have a strong commitment to lighting quality and power consumption. In the present case study, the evolved design used 37.5% less power than the reference lighting design provided by a professional and at the same time ensured a 227.3% better global lighting uniformity. A better lighting quality is achieved because the proposed system solves multi-objective optimization problems by avoiding power wastes which are often unclear to a professional lighting engineer in charge of a given project.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-4174 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1281
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Author Murray, A.T.; Feng, X.
Title Public street lighting service standard assessment and achievement Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
Volume 53 Issue (up) Pages 14-22
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Nighttime lighting is an important public service that impacts human activities and promotes transportation and pedestrian safety. Of course, such services are not free and have been found to have negative impacts on the environment. Responsible stewardship of the built environment requires that efficiency and care in the delivery of services be taken, particularly in the context of sustainability concerns. A significant problem with existing urban infrastructure systems like street lighting is that they have evolved over time using rule-of-thumb planning standards. Given this, systematic assessment and re-evaluation offers much potential for enhancing the spatial efficiency of infrastructure but also the opportunity to explicitly account for environmental impacts in combination with safety and security. This paper applies a methodology for studying lighting in urban areas based upon the use of spatial analytics, including GIS and spatial optimization. Findings and results are reported for a study area in San Diego, California, highlighting current system configuration issues, method development and the potential long term benefits of systematic analysis of public sector services.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0038-0121 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1344
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Author Kolláth, Z.; Dömény, A.; Kolláth, K.; Nagy, B.
Title Qualifying lighting remodelling in a Hungarian city based on light pollution effects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 181 Issue (up) Pages 46-51
Keywords Skyglow; Lighting
Abstract The public lighting system has been remodelled in several Hungarian cities. In some cases the majority of the old luminaries were fitted with high pressure sodium lamps and they were replaced with white LED lighting with a typical correlated colour temperature of about 4500 K. Therefore, these remodelling works provide a testbed for methods in measurements and modelling. We measured the luminance of the light domes of selected cities by DSLR photometry before and after the remodelling.

Thanks to the full cut off design of the new lighting fixtures we obtained a slight decrease even in the blue part of the sky dome spectra of a tested city. However, we have to note that this positive change is the result of the bad geometry (large ULR) of the previous lighting system. Based on Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations we provide a comparison of different indicators that can be used to qualify the remodelling, and to predict the possible changes in light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1375
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Author Price, B.; Baker, E.
Title NightLife: A cheap, robust, LED based light trap for collecting aquatic insects in remote areas Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Biodiversity Data Journal Abbreviated Journal Bdj
Volume 4 Issue (up) Pages e7648
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting
Abstract Background

There are approximately one hundred thousand aquatic insect species currently known to science and this figure is likely a significant underestimation. The ecology of aquatic insect groups has been studied due to their role as bioindicators of water quality and in the case of Diptera, their role as vectors of disease. Light trapping targets emergent adults, using mercury vapour bulbs or actinic fluorescent tubes, however these light sources are unsuitable for sampling remote regions due to their power requirements, which limit their mobility. Most insects studied have three types of photoreceptors corresponding to UV, blue and green light.

New information

We describe the NightLife: a cheap, robust, portable, LED based light source which targets insect trichromatic vision, is capable of autonomous operation and is powered by a single AA battery. Field trials show that the NightLife is capable of collecting sufficient samples of 12 insect orders, including all aquatic orders commonly collected by traditional light trapping and compares favourably with actinic fluorescent tubes and white LEDs. Future development in LED technology will likely result in LEDs replacing traditional light sources for collecting insects more widely.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1314-2836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1398
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