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Author Jones, B.A.
Title Spillover health effects of energy efficiency investments: Quasi-experimental evidence from the Los Angeles LED streetlight program Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
Volume 88 Issue (up) Pages 283-299
Keywords Human Health; LED; public health; outdoor lighting; Los Angeles; economics; energy efficiency; breast cancer; fossil fuel carbon emissions
Abstract Payback estimates of energy efficiency investments often ignore public health externalities. This is problematic in cases where spillover health effects are substantial, such as when the application of new technology alters environmental exposures. When health externalities are included in return on investment calculations, energy efficiency programs may look more or less attractive than suggested by conventional “energy savings only” estimates. This analysis exploits the quasi-experiment provided by the 2009 Los Angeles (LA) LED streetlight efficiency program to investigate the returns on investments inclusive of an originally estimated health externality. Using the synthetic control method, we find that the LED streetlight program is associated with a lagged increase in breast cancer mortality of 0.479 per 100,000. Inclusive of the effects of LEDs on breast cancer and avoided carbon emissions, the LA LED program provides a −146.2% 10-year return compared to +118.2% when health outcomes and carbon emissions are ignored.
Address Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, 1 UNM Drive, MSC 05 3060, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA; bajones(at)unm.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0095-0696 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1976
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Author Laurìa, A.; Secchi, S.; Vessella, L.
Title Visual wayfinding for partially sighted pedestrians – The use of luminance contrast in outdoor pavings Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume in press Issue (up) Pages in press
Keywords Lighting
Abstract An increase in the number of partially sighted people is one of the effects of population ageing. These people have great difficulties in gathering wayfinding information to move independently in an unfamiliar environment. Guide paths based on the luminance contrast between a strip and surrounding surfaces can be an effective device for mitigating these difficulties, but information provided by the scientific literature on guide paths cannot be usefully applied to the naturally coloured paving materials most commonly found in pedestrian urban spaces. This paper presents a simplified method for measuring the luminance contrast between a guide strip and its background using combinations of naturally coloured paving materials.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1980
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Author Wren, W.; Locke, S.
Title Upgraded Rig Lighting Improves Night Time Visibility While Reducing Stray Light and the Threat to Dark Skies in West Texas Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication Society of Petroleum Engineers Abbreviated Journal Soc. Petrol. Engr.
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Lighting; outdoor lighting; petroleum; oil and gas; lighting engineering
Abstract McDonald Observatory, part of the University of Texas at Austin, is a world-class astronomical-research facility representing hundreds of millions of dollars of public and private investment that is increasingly threatened by nighttime lighting from oil-and-gas-related activities in and around the Permian Basin. Established in the remote Davis Mountains of West Texas in 1932, the observatory is home to some of the world's largest telescopes and it has continued as a world-renowned research center. Dark night skies are crucial to its mission. Since 2010, however, the sky along the observatory's northern horizon, in the direction of the Permian Basin, has been steadily and rapidly brightening, due to new exploration for oil and gas. The pace has been accelerating: More than 2,000 applications were filed over the past year to drill in the region. In 2011, the State of Texas enacted a law that instructs the seven counties surrounding McDonald Observatory, an area covering some 28,000 square miles, to adopt outdoor lighting ordinances designed to preserve the dark night skies for ongoing astronomical research at the observatory. Most had already done so voluntarily, but additional effort is needed throughout the area to address fast-moving energy-exploration activities.

A joint project between McDonald Observatory and Pioneer Energy Services (PES) has demonstrated that many of the adverse effects of oilfield lighting can be mitigated, without jeopardizing safety, through proper shielding and aiming of light fixtures. Beginning July, 2013, PES granted the observatory access to a working rig, Pioneer Rig #29. Every time the rig moved to a new location, there was an opportunity to install shields, re-aim floodlights, and evaluate effectiveness.

This joint project demonstrated that, in many cases, nighttime visibility on the rig can be significantly improved. Many light fixtures, which had been sources of blinding glare due to of lack of shielding, poor placement, or poor aiming, were made better and safer, using optional glare shields that are offered by manufacturers for a variety of fixture models. Proper shielding and aiming of existing fixtures improves visibility and reduces wasted uplight. New lighting systems that take advantage of light-emitting-diode technology also promise better directionality, reduced fuel consumption, and darker skies overhead.

The oil-and-gas industry has been lighting its exploration and production activities in much same way for more than 100 years, with little to no consideration of environmental impacts. The opportunity exists to adopt new lighting practices and technologies that improve safety, reduce costs, and help preserve our vanishing night skies so that important ongoing scientific exploration can continue.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Society of Petroleum Engineers Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes SPE E&P Health, Safety, Security and Environmental Conference-Americas held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 16–18 March 2015 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1993
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Author Kinzey, B.R.; Perrin, T.E.; Miller, N.J.; Kocifaj, M.; Aubé, M.; Lamphar, H.A.
Title An investigation of LED street lighting's impact on sky glow Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume PNNL-26411 Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Lighting
Abstract A significant amount of public attention has recently focused on perceived impacts of converting street lighting from incumbent lamp-based products to LED technology. Much of this attention pertains to the higher content of short wavelength light (commonly referred to as “blue light”) of LEDs and its attendant influences on sky glow (a brightening of the night sky that can interfere with astronomical observation and may be associated with a host of other issues). The complexity of this topic leads to common misunderstandings and misperceptions among the public, and for this reason the U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program embarked on a study of sky glow using a well-established astronomical model to investigate some of the primary factors influencing sky glow. This report details the results of the investigation and attempts to present those results in terms accessible to the general lighting community. The report also strives to put the results into a larger context, and help educate interested readers on various topics relevant to the issues being discussed.
Address
Corporate Author Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2014
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Author Du, J.; Zhang, X.; King, D.
Title An investigation into the risk of night light pollution in a glazed office building: The effect of shading solutions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 145 Issue (up) Pages 243-259
Keywords Lighting; Planning
Abstract Light pollution has been recognised as a major environmental problem in urban areas at night. This study presents an investigation into the impact of seven various shading solutions on the risk of light pollution caused by indoor artificial lighting in a fully glazed office building. Radiance, a ray-tracing package, was adopted to calculate external illuminances produced by indoor lighting applications at various positions. It has been determined that: 1) A glazed façade could become a critical source of light pollution or obtrusive light (sky glow and light trespass) due to applications of indoor lighting at night; 2) A light shelf could perform well on the protection of both light trespass and sky glow; 3) A large overhang and horizontal louvre could effectively lower the risk of light trespass, but would possibly cause the deterioration of sky glow; and 4) No significant impact of short overhang and vertical louvre can be found on the two aspects of light pollution. This study exposes a significant implication; apart from their principal functions, the shading devices applied in a largely glazed building may require a new role in controlling obtrusive light in cities at night.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2015
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