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Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.
Title The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages e0150884
Keywords Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior
Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.
Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403
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Author Hyari, K.H.; Khelifi, A.; Katkhuda, H.
Title Multiobjective Optimization of Roadway Lighting Projects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Transportation Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Transp. Eng.
Volume Issue Pages 04016024
Keywords Lighting; multiobjective optimization; traffic safety; road safety; lighting design; uniformity; genetic algorithm
Abstract Roadway lighting systems play a major role in maintaining nighttime traffic safety as they reduce both the number and severity of nighttime traffic accidents. While the design of roadway lighting systems involves multiple objectives, past studies have focused on optimizing only one of the multiple objectives that should be considered. This paper presents a multiobjective optimization model for roadway lighting projects that simultaneously optimizes four design objectives. The incorporated objectives are (1) maximizing the average lighting level on the road surface; (2) maximizing the lighting uniformity along the roadway; (3) minimizing the glare to road users produced by the lighting system; and (4) minimizing the cost of operating the lighting system. The model is designed and developed as a multiobjective genetic algorithm to help decision-makers in their endeavor to provide efficient roadway lighting systems that strike a balance between the four conflicting objectives. The present model considers the following six design variables: type of lighting fixture, mounting height, spacing, fixture offset, fixture’s inclination, and fixture’s rotation angle. An application example is analyzed in this paper to clarify the use of the model and display its significant features in producing better lighting arrangements for roadways.
Address Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hashemite Univ., P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan; hyari(at)hu.edu.jo
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ASCE Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0733-947X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1405
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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K.
Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States
Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.
Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427
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Author Tewolde, F.T.; Lu, N.; Shiina, K.; Maruo, T.; Takagaki, M.; Kozai, T.; Yamori, W.
Title Nighttime Supplemental LED Inter-lighting Improves Growth and Yield of Single-Truss Tomatoes by Enhancing Photosynthesis in Both Winter and Summer Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Frontiers in Plant Science Abbreviated Journal Front Plant Sci
Volume 7 Issue Pages 448
Keywords Plants; LED; fruit quality; lighting period; photosynthesis; plant factory; single-truss tomato; supplemental lighting; yield
Abstract Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when the solar altitude and PPFD at the canopy are low and day length is shorter than in summer. Therefore, providing supplemental lighting to the lower canopy can increase year-round productivity. However, supplemental lighting can be expensive. In some places, the cost of electricity is lower at night, but the effect of using supplemental light at night has not yet been examined. In this study, we examined the effects of supplemental LED inter-lighting (LED inter-lighting hereafter) during the daytime or nighttime on photosynthesis, growth, and yield of single-truss tomato plants both in winter and summer. We used LED inter-lighting modules with combined red and blue light to illuminate lower leaves right after the first anthesis. The PPFD of this light was 165 mumol m(-2) s(-1) measured at 10 cm from the LED module. LED inter-lighting was provided from 4:00 am to 4:00 pm for the daytime treatments and from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am for the nighttime treatments. Plants exposed only to solar light were used as controls. Daytime LED inter-lighting increased the photosynthetic capacity of middle and lower canopy leaves, which significantly increased yield by 27% in winter; however, photosynthetic capacity and yield were not significantly increased during summer. Nighttime LED inter-lighting increased photosynthetic capacity in both winter and summer, and yield increased by 24% in winter and 12% in summer. In addition, nighttime LED inter-lighting in winter significantly increased the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content of the tomato fruits, by 20 and 25%, respectively. Use of nighttime LED inter-lighting was also more cost-effective than daytime inter-lighting. Thus, nighttime LED inter-lighting can effectively improve tomato plant growth and yield with lower energy cost compared with daytime both in summer and winter.
Address Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Kashiwa, Japan; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Frontiers Media S.A. Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1664-462X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27092163; PMCID:PMC4823311 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1434
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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Impact of Lighting on Flora and Fauna Type Book Chapter
Year 2016 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-33
Keywords Ecology; Lighting; Artificial light at night; ALAN; Plants; Animals; review
Abstract Technology, especially artificial light at night (ALAN), often has unexpected impacts on the environment. This chapter addresses both the perception of light by various organisms and the impact of ALAN on flora and fauna. The responses to ALAN are subdivided into the effects of light intensity, color spectra, and duration and timing of illumination. The ways organisms perceive light can be as variable as the habitats they live in. ALAN often interferes with natural light information. It is rarely neutral and has significant impacts beyond human perception. For example, UV light reflection of generative plant parts or the direction of light is used by many organisms as information for foraging, finding spawning sites, or communication. Contemporary outdoor lighting often lacks sustainable planning, even though the protection of species, habitat, and human well-being could be improved by adopting simple technical measures. The increasing use of ALAN with high intensities in the blue part of the spectrum, e.g., fluorescent light and LEDs, is discussed as a critical trend. Blue light is a major circadian signal in higher vertebrates and can substantially impact the orientation of organisms such as numerous insect species. A better understanding of how various types and sources of artificial light, and how organisms perceive ALAN, will be an important step towards more sustainable lighting. Such knowledge is the basis for sustainable lighting planning and the development of solutions to protect biodiversity from the effects of outdoor lighting. Maps that describe the rapid changes in ALAN are urgently needed. In addition, measures are required to reduce the increasing use and intensity of ALAN in more remote areas as signaling thresholds in flora and fauna at night are often close to moonlight intensity and far below streetlight levels.
Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, 12587, Berlin, Germany; schroer(at)igb-berlin.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-00295-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1470
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