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Author Cinzano, P.; Javier, F.; Castro, D.; Astronomia, D.; Padova, U.
Title The artificial sky luminance and the emission angles of the upward light flux. Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication arXiv preprint astro-ph Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The direction of the upward light emission has different polluting effects on the sky depending on the distance of the observation site. We studied with detailed models for light pollution propagation the ratio (bH)/(bL), at given distances from a city, between the artificial sky luminance bH produced by its upward light emission between a given threshold angle θ0 and the vertical and the artificial sky luminance bL produced by its upward light emission between the horizontal and the threshold angle θ0. Our results show that as the distance from the city increases the effects of the emission at high angles above the horizontal decrease relative to the effects of emission at lower angles above the horizontal. Outside some kilometers from cities or towns the light emitted between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is as important as the light emitted at all the other angles in producing the artificial sky luminance. Therefore the protection of a site requires also a careful control of this emission which needs to be reduced to at most 1/10 of the remaining emission. The emission between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is mostly produced by spill light from luminaires, so fully shielded fixtures (e.g. flat glass luminaires or asymmetric spot-lights installed without any tilt) are needed for this purpose.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 575
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Author Dick, R.
Title Applied scotobiology in luminaire design Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 50-66
Keywords Lighting
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 576
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Author Assum, T.; Bjørnskau, T.; Fosser, S.; Sagberg, F.
Title Risk compensation--the case of road lighting Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 545-553
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The hypothesis of this article is that drivers will not adjust their behavior, i.e. drivers are not expected to increase their speed, reduce their concentration or travel more when road lighting is installed. The hypothesis was based on previous research showing that road lighting reduces road accidents and that average driving speeds do not increase when road lighting is installed. Our results show that drivers do compensate for road lighting in terms of increased speed and reduced concentration. Consequently, the hypothesis is rejected. This means that road lighting could have a somewhat larger accident-reducing effect, if compensation could be avoided. The fact that previous research has found no change in average speed when road lighting is introduced, seems to be explained by increased driving speeds by some drivers being counterbalanced by a larger proportion of more slowly driving groups of drivers (elderly people and women), i.e. different subgroups of road users compensate in different ways.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 625
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Author Bisketzis, N.; Polymeropoulos, G.; Topalis, F. V.
Title A Mesopic Vision Approach for a Better Design of Road Lighting. Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems Abbreviated Journal
Volume 3 Issue 5 Pages 1380–1385
Keywords Lighting
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 626
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Author Cinzano, P.
Title A portable spectrophotometer for light pollution measurements. Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Mem. SA It. Suppl. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue Pages 395–398
Keywords Lighting
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 628
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