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Author Green, J.; Perkins, C.; Steinbach, R.; Edwards, P.
Title Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place
Volume 34 Issue Pages 171-180
Keywords Society; Psychology; Lighting; Darkness
Abstract Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and documentary sources. Public concern focused on road safety, fear of crime, mobility and seeing the night sky but, for the majority in areas with interventions, reductions went unnoticed. However, more private concerns tapped into deep-seated anxieties about darkness, modernity 'going backwards', and local governance. Pathways linking lighting reductions and health are mediated by place, expectations of how localities should be lit, and trust in local authorities to act in the best interests of local communities.
Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1353-8292 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26057894 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1187
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Author Azam, C.; Kerbiriou, C.; Vernet, A.; Julien, J.-F.; Bas, Y.; Plichard, L.; Maratrat, J.; Le Viol, I.
Title Is part-night lighting an effective measure to limit the impacts of artificial lighting on bats? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords animals; conservation; lighting
Abstract As light pollution is currently considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, different lighting management options are being explored to mitigate the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. Although part-night lighting schemes have been adopted by many local authorities across Europe to reduce the carbon footprint and save energy, their effects on biodiversity are unknown. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we compared the activity levels of 8 bat species under unlit, part-night and full-night lighting treatments in a rural area located 60 km south of Paris, France. We selected 36 study locations composed of 1 lit site and a paired unlit control site; 24 of these sites were located in areas subject to part-night lighting schemes, and 12 sites were in areas under standard, full-night lighting. There was significantly more activity on part-night lighting sites compared to full-night lighting sites for the late-emerging, light-sensitive Plecotus spp., and a similar pattern was observable for Myotis spp., although not significant. In contrast, part-night lighting did not influence the activity of early emerging bat species around streetlights, except for Pipistrellus pipistrellus for which there was significantly less activity on part-night lighting sites than on full-night lighting sites. Overall, no significant difference in activity between part- and full- night lighting sites were observed in 5 of the 8 species studied, suggesting that current part-night lighting schemes fail to encompass the range of activity of most bat species. We recommend that such schemes start earlier at night to effectively mitigate the adverse effects of artificial lighting on light-sensitive species, particularly along ecological corridors that are especially important to the persistence of biodiversity in urban landscapes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address National Museum of Natural History, Center for Ecology and Conservation Science, UMR7204-MNHN-CNRS-UPMC, 55 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26179558 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1207
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Author Dobler, G.; Ghandehari, M.; Koonin, S.E.; Nazari, R.; Patrinos, A.; Sharma, M.S.; Tafvizi, A.; Vo, H.T.; Wurtele, J.S.
Title Dynamics of the urban lightscape Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Information Systems Abbreviated Journal Information Systems
Volume 54 Issue Pages 115–126
Keywords lighting, society, skyglow
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4379 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1212
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P.
Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies
Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Kantermann, T.
Title Does ambient light at night reduce total melatonin production? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Hormones Abbreviated Journal Hormones
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; melatonin; ambient lighting; indoor light; sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; chronotype
Abstract It was with great interest that we read the recent study by Hersh et al on the effects of sleep and light at night on melatonin in adolescents. Of particular interest was their focus on electronic use after “lights out”. The authors highlight the importance of understanding what effects this may have on sleep, citing a survey that showed that 72% of American 13-18 year olds regularly use a cellphone or computer before trying to go to sleep. In their study, Hersh et al1 did not observe a significant suppression in urinary morning melatonin (aMT6s) levels with respect to the use of electronic devices between lights off and sleep onset. Therefore, the authors conclude that “nighttime behaviors of adolescents by and large do not impact urinary melatonin levels”. Absence of evidence, however, is not the same as evidence of absence, and we believe that the authors’ conclusion is premature.
Address Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Telegraphenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany; kyba(at)gfz-potsdam.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Hellenic Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1236
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