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Author Stevens, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527  
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Author Bellia, L.; Seraceni, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A proposal for a simplified model to evaluate the circadian effects of light sources Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 46 Issue 5 Pages 493-505  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 571  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cinzano, P. url  openurl
  Title Technical Measures for an effective limitation of the effects of light pollution. Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 574  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Javier, F.; Castro, D.; Astronomia, D.; Padova, U. url  openurl
  Title The artificial sky luminance and the emission angles of the upward light flux. Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication arXiv preprint astro-ph Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The direction of the upward light emission has different polluting effects on the sky depending on the distance of the observation site. We studied with detailed models for light pollution propagation the ratio (bH)/(bL), at given distances from a city, between the artificial sky luminance bH produced by its upward light emission between a given threshold angle θ0 and the vertical and the artificial sky luminance bL produced by its upward light emission between the horizontal and the threshold angle θ0. Our results show that as the distance from the city increases the effects of the emission at high angles above the horizontal decrease relative to the effects of emission at lower angles above the horizontal. Outside some kilometers from cities or towns the light emitted between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is as important as the light emitted at all the other angles in producing the artificial sky luminance. Therefore the protection of a site requires also a careful control of this emission which needs to be reduced to at most 1/10 of the remaining emission. The emission between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is mostly produced by spill light from luminaires, so fully shielded fixtures (e.g. flat glass luminaires or asymmetric spot-lights installed without any tilt) are needed for this purpose.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 575  
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Author Dick, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Applied scotobiology in luminaire design Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 50-66  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 576  
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