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Author Kelber, A.; Balkenius, A.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 419 Issue 6910 Pages 922-925  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Color; Color Perception/*physiology; Conditioning (Psychology)/physiology; Cues; *Darkness; Discrimination Learning/physiology; Humans; Light; Lighting; Moths/*physiology; Photic Stimulation; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate/physiology; Reward; Sensitivity and Specificity; Ultraviolet Rays  
  Abstract Humans are colour-blind at night, and it has been assumed that this is true of all animals. But colour vision is as useful for discriminating objects at night as it is during the day. Here we show, through behavioural experiments, that the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor uses colour vision to discriminate coloured stimuli at intensities corresponding to dim starlight (0.0001 cd x m(-2)). It can do this even if the illumination colour changes, thereby showing colour constancy-a property of true colour vision systems. In identical conditions humans are completely colour-blind. Our calculations show that the possession of three photoreceptor classes reduces the absolute sensitivity of the eye, which indicates that colour vision has a high ecological relevance in nocturnal moths. In addition, the photoreceptors of a single ommatidium absorb too few photons for reliable discrimination, indicating that spatial and/or temporal summation must occur for colour vision to be possible. Taken together, our results show that colour vision occurs at nocturnal intensities in a biologically relevant context.  
  Address Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Vision Group, Lund University, Helgonavagen 3, S-22362 Lund, Sweden. almut.kelber@zool.lu.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12410310 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 606  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Assum, T.; Bjørnskau, T.; Fosser, S.; Sagberg, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Risk compensation--the case of road lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention  
  Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 545-553  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The hypothesis of this article is that drivers will not adjust their behavior, i.e. drivers are not expected to increase their speed, reduce their concentration or travel more when road lighting is installed. The hypothesis was based on previous research showing that road lighting reduces road accidents and that average driving speeds do not increase when road lighting is installed. Our results show that drivers do compensate for road lighting in terms of increased speed and reduced concentration. Consequently, the hypothesis is rejected. This means that road lighting could have a somewhat larger accident-reducing effect, if compensation could be avoided. The fact that previous research has found no change in average speed when road lighting is introduced, seems to be explained by increased driving speeds by some drivers being counterbalanced by a larger proportion of more slowly driving groups of drivers (elderly people and women), i.e. different subgroups of road users compensate in different ways.  
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  Language Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 625  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bisketzis, N.; Polymeropoulos, G.; Topalis, F. V. openurl 
  Title A Mesopic Vision Approach for a Better Design of Road Lighting. Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication WSEAS Transactions on Circuits and Systems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue 5 Pages 1380–1385  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract  
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  Language Summary Language (up) Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 626  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627  
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Author Cinzano, P. url  openurl
  Title A portable spectrophotometer for light pollution measurements. Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Mem. SA It. Suppl. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 395–398  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 628  
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