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Author Meier, J. url  openurl
  Title (up) Contentious Light: An Analytical Framework for Lighting Conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 62-77  
  Keywords Society; Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract This paper takes into view the broad range of contemporary conflicts regarding outdoor lighting. It proposes a working-definition that allows for differentiating lighting conflicts from other forms of lighting-related contention, as well as an analytical framework that allows for the structured description of individual lighting conflicts, and the comparative analysis of multiple cases. The analytical framework was developed based on the social-scientific analysis of media reports of existing conflict cases in Europe and North America, and informed by existing knowledge from the fields of lighting and conflict studies. A central challenge for developing such a framework is dealing with the high level of contingency and complexity of lighting conflicts. The framework reduces this complexity by focusing its field of vision to those aspects that are directly related to the lighting and its contestation. For each of these aspects, it provides sets of descriptive variables that allow for describing the conflicts’ individuality in a standardized – and thus comparable – way. The framework strictly separates the regarded aspects from their judgment by the conflict parties, making it possible to contrast their views on one and the same lighting situation. A visual template supports the process of analysis. It allows for depicting individual cases in short, and for clearly identifying where perspectives differ. At the multiple-case level, the framework not only opens up possibilities for spatial and temporal comparisons of lighting conflicts and the subsequent development of typologies, but also for harnessing their potential for informing the development of more sustainable planning and policy approaches for artificial lighting.  
  Address Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany; josiane.meier(at)tu-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IJSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2190  
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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.; Leung, W.Y.; Wong, C.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 90-108  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky brightness; Skyglow; Moon radiation; Urban lighting; Hong Kong  
  Abstract Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec−2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 186  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Reviews Abbreviated Journal Environ. Rev.  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 323-330  
  Keywords diurnal; lighting; night; nocturnal; light pollution; light at night; Photoperiodism; demography; demographics; population dynamics  
  Abstract Artificial lighting, especially but not exclusively through street lights, has transformed the nighttime environment in much of the world. Impacts have been identified across multiple levels of biological organization and process. The influences, however, on population dynamics, particularly through the combined effects on the key demographic rates (immigration, births, deaths, emigration) that determine where individual species occur and in what numbers, have not previously been well characterized. The majority of attention explicitly on demographic parameters to date has been placed on the attraction of organisms to lights, and thus effectively local immigration, the large numbers of individuals that can be involved, and then to some extent the mortality that can often result. Some of the most important influences of nighttime lighting, however, are likely more subtle and less immediately apparent to the human observer. Particularly significant are effects of nighttime lighting on demography that act through (i) circadian clocks and photoperiodism and thence on birth rates; (ii) time partitioning and thence on death rates; and (iii) immigration/emigration through constraining the movements of individuals amongst habitat networks, especially as a consequence of continuously lit linear features such as roads and footpaths. Good model organisms are required to enable the relative consequences of such effects to be effectively determined, and a wider consideration of the effects of artificial light at night is needed in demographic studies across a range of species.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Canadian Science Publishing Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1181-8700 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 317  
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Author Kim, T. Y., & Park, N. H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Design of Path Prediction Smart Street Lighting System on the Internet of Things Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of the Chosun Natural Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 14-19  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract In this paper, we propose a system for controlling the brightness of street lights by predicting pedestrian paths, identifying the position of pedestrians with motion sensing sensors and obtaining motion vectors based on past walking directions, then predicting pedestrian paths through the route prediction smart street lighting system. In addition, by using motion vector data, the pre-treatment process using linear interpolation method and the fuzzy system and neural network system were designed in parallel structure to increase efficiency and the rough set was used to correct errors. It is expected that the system proposed in this paper will be effective in securing the safety of pedestrians and reducing light pollution and energy by predicting the path of pedestrians in the detection of movement of pedestrians and in conjunction with smart street lightings.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2359  
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Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Schieck, A.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Designing digital displays and interactive media in today’s cities by night. Do we know enough about attracting attention to do so? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Conscious Cities Anthology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Lighting  
  Abstract With the huge transformation in the development of digital screen technology and its consistently decreasing cost, digital billboards are progressively replacing traditional static, two-dimensional poster advertisements in our cities1. Previously, due to the substantial expenditure involved, they were only available to major international brands with vast promotional resources to build their brand fame. Today, however, they are being used increasingly by advertisers to deliver all kinds of messages from simple ones to more sophisticated, interactive storytelling. Soon, however, even newer ways of purchasing advertisements using computers will be introduced by the outdoor media industry to address the public, so potentially everybody will be able to rent out available advertising space and communicate the message. But are we ready for this next step? As there are no proper guidelines or regulations in place for this new medium in the urban realm, today we are facing issues such as no integration of the display’s location into the built environment, no specifications based on knowledge of human perception and the human centric design approach, no control over its content quality, and so called ‘display blindness’2 seems to be a common collective urban experience at night. Taking London as one of the most cutting-edge outdoor digital advertising environments in the world3 (with the largest number of these screens traditionally located in or in close proximity to Piccadilly Circus) this paper discusses various aspects of this new medium. Besides the layout and geometry of the space, it also focuses on navigation and attracting the visual attention of passers-by at night in a practical human oriented context. Additionally, questions regarding complex sensory, social, special and interactional issues and the necessity for interdisciplinary collaboration have been addressed.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2351  
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