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Author O'Connell, H. A.
Title Streetlights in the city: understanding the distribution of Houston streetlights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Society
Abstract There are at least 173,724 streetlights in the city of Houston, or about 15 streetlights per mile of roadway in the average Houston neighborhood. But there is wide variation in streetlight density across those neighborhoods. This report offers several important findings. First, black and Hispanic neighborhoods have higher concentrations of streetlights than white neighborhoods. Second, mixed-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of streetlights than the city’s wealthiest and poorest neighborhoods.

In the context of this discussion, we should consider the possibility that some areas of the city are overly lit in addition to being concerned about the places without enough lights. There may be a point at which having more lights actually becomes a negative. We need to get a better understanding of the lived consequences of the level of available lighting before making any further decisions regarding city streetlights.
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Publisher Rice | Kinder Institute for urban research Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2068
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Nagare, R.; Price, L.L.A.
Title Non-visual effects of light: How to use light to promote circadian entrainment and elicit alertness Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 38-62
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract In addition to stimulating the visual system, light incident on the retina stimulates other biological functions, also referred to as non-visual responses. Among the most notable biological functions are human circadian rhythms, which are bodily rhythms that, in constant darkness, oscillate with a period close to, but typically slightly longer than 24 hours. Twenty-four-hour light–dark patterns incident on the retina are the major synchroniser of circadian rhythms to the local time on Earth. Entrainment of circadian rhythms has been implicated in health and well-being. Light can also elicit an acute alerting effect on people, similar to a ‘cup of coffee.’ This review summarises the literature on how light affects entrainment and alertness and how it can be used to achieve these aims.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3133
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Author Gerhardsson, K.M.; Laike, T.; Johansson, M.
Title Leaving lights on – A conscious choice or wasted light? Use of indoor lighting in Swedish homes Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Psychology; Lighting
Abstract Promoting resource- and energy-efficient home lighting through technology and behaviour change requires an understanding of how residents currently use lighting and what they want from it. However, users' needs and desires relating to lighting in homes are poorly understood, as research is still limited. This paper aims to provide a fuller picture of residents' experiences with their home lighting. Interviews about how residents perceive the character of lighting and luminaires and lighting use suggest that home lighting has nine capabilities: to enable vision; to facilitate visual tasks; to display objects; to send a message; to support a particular atmosphere; to shape the architectural space; to offer a visual aesthetic experience; to maintain or change rhythmicity; and to evoke memories. Secondary data confirmed five of them. The identified capabilities relate to behavioural goals, psychological wellbeing and social needs. We conclude that seemingly wasted light in people's homes, i.e. lights left on in unoccupied rooms, can serve a purpose for the residents, such as avoiding visual or aesthetic discomfort, making the home inviting, benefitting people outside and providing safety. Findings have implications for the further development of new lighting technologies and design, energy-saving campaigns targeting residents and for urban outdoor environments.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2898
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Author Yusup, G. S. B.; Melda, R. J.; Maman, I.; Li, J.
Title Sustainable Low Carbon Urban Lighting Analysis: A Case Study of Bandung City Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Engineering Sciences Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages H9-H18
Keywords Energy; Lighting
Abstract Nowadays, lighting technology is in the transition period from conventional lighting to LED, which more environmentally friendly due to free of harmful substances such as mercury, lead, or other hazardous chemicals and gases. This low light pollution because directional light is carefully distributed precisely to the intended location. Performance of the lights also brighter than other lights. This research measuring the reduction of CO2 gas emissions before and after PJU (street lights) in Bandung is changed from the conventional to the LED, also mapping the CO2 gas emissions in six Development Areas (SWK). The basis for this research approach is a case study with before and after comparison, meaning that this approach only applies to one object that is the same as comparing the condition of the object before and after the treatment. In this study, the evaluation research method used is a causal method, which is a method that is more directed at impact evaluation research. Scientifically and objectively, PJU LED provides low CO2 emissions gas by up to 26 % in Bandung city.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3276
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Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom
Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
Address Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk
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Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835
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