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Author Snyder, J.D.; Bullough, J.D.; Radetsky, L.C. url  openurl
  Title Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication National Technical Information Service report Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting Systems  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 444  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mulvin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202  
  Keywords History; Lighting; Society  
  Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.  
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  ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1917  
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Author Scott, R. url  openurl
  Title THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROAD LIGHTING QUALITY AND ACCIDENT FREQUENCY – TRRL LABORATORY REPORT 929. Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; quality; accident rate; accident; frequency; luminance; glare; uniformity; urban area; daylight; darkness; surfacing; pedestrian  
  Abstract many studies have related changes in accident frequency to the presence of street lighting, and a few have examined its variation over a range of lighting quality, as measured by illuminance. this investigation attempts to find which of several measures of lighting (describing quantity – as represented by luminance or illuminance – uniformity and glare) most clearly explain variations in accident frequency. about 100 lit sites, almost all in built-up areas, were measured for lighting quality in dry-road conditions. the lighting variables measured were related to the dark:day ratios of accident frequency for the same sites. the strongest relationship found was that for average road surface luminance: in the range 0.5-2.0 candelas/m2, it is estimated that an increase of 1 cd/m2 is associated with a 35 per cent lower accident ratio. other measures of luminance and illuminance were also found to be related to accident ratio (and to each other), but not as clearly as was average road luminance, which is therefore the preferred explanatory variable. analysis of pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately did not reveal a relationship between the former and lighting quality. in contrast, non-pedestrian accidents showed similar relationships to those for all accidents, with the addition of a possible relationship with overall uniformity of luminance.(a)  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 647  
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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States  
  Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.  
  Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA  
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  Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427  
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Author Li, Fusheng; Chen, Yuming; Liu, Yang; Chen, Dahua url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparative in Situ Study of LEDs and HPS in Road Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Abbreviated Journal Leukos  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 205-214  
  Keywords Roadway lighting, visibility, LED, high-pressure sodium; LED lighting; HPS, STV, achromatic target, colored target  
  Abstract The effect of spectrum on the visibility of roadway lighting targets was investigated. The experiment focused on the relation between average visibility ratings and small target visibility (STV) under installations that employed LED and HPS light sources. Achromatic targets were more visible under LEDs illumination conditions than under HPS illumination conditions. The results also suggest that the visibility of colored objects on the road was better under LEDs illumination conditions in comparison to HPS. The results cannot be generalized to all LED light sources, but are likely indicative of LEDs with similar spectral power distributions (SPDs). Relative visibility under source types with different SPDs, and which provide different luminance distributions, should merit consideration when selecting a light source for roadway lighting.  
  Address Department of Illuminating Engineering & Light Sources, School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, China  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 337  
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