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Author Fotios, S., Price, T
Title Road lighting and accidents: Why lighting is not the only answer Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 82 Issue 5 Pages 22-26
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Tony Price and Steve Fotios point out that while road lighting can be a significant counter measure to accidents, and that higher levels might help, the presence of road lighting does not guarantee all accidents will be avoided.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1767
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Author Wyse, C.A.; Selman, C.; Page, M.M.; Coogan, A.N.; Hazlerigg, D.G.
Title Circadian desynchrony and metabolic dysfunction; did light pollution make us fat? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Medical Hypotheses Abbreviated Journal Med Hypotheses
Volume (down) 77 Issue 6 Pages 1139-1144
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/etiology; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/history/statistics & numerical data; Metabolic Diseases/*complications/etiology; Mice; *Models, Biological; Obesity/*epidemiology/*etiology; *Photoperiod; Rats
Abstract Circadian rhythms are daily oscillations in physiology and behaviour that recur with a period of 24h, and that are entrained by the daily photoperiod. The cycle of sunrise and sunset provided a reliable time cue for many thousands of years, until the advent of artificial lighting disrupted the entrainment of human circadian rhythms to the solar photoperiod. Circadian desynchrony (CD) occurs when endogenous rhythms become misaligned with daily photoperiodic cycles, and this condition is facilitated by artificial lighting. This review examines the hypothesis that chronic CD that has accompanied the availability of electric lighting in the developed world induces a metabolic and behavioural phenotype that is predisposed to the development of obesity. The evidence to support this hypothesis is based on epidemiological data showing coincidence between the appearance of obesity and the availability of artificial light, both geographically, and historically. This association links CD to obesity in humans, and is corroborated by experimental studies that demonstrate that CD can induce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and in rodents. This association between CD and obesity has far reaching implications for human health, lifestyle and work practices. Attention to the rhythmicity of daily sleep, exercise, work and feeding schedules could be beneficial in targeting or reversing the modern human predisposition to obesity.
Address Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3TZ, UK. c.wyse@abdn.ac.uk
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ISSN 0306-9877 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21983352 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 837
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Author Reagan, I.J.; Brumbelow, M.; Frischmann, T.
Title On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume (down) 76 Issue Pages 74-82
Keywords security; lighting
Abstract Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested.
Address Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Research 1005 N Glebe Rd., Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22201, United States
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25603548 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1251
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Author Bennett, S.; Alpert, M.; Kubulins, V.; Hansler, R.L.
Title Use of modified spectacles and light bulbs to block blue light at night may prevent postpartum depression Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Medical Hypotheses Abbreviated Journal Med Hypotheses
Volume (down) 73 Issue 2 Pages 251-253
Keywords Depression, Postpartum/*prevention & control; *Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; *Lighting; blue light; light therapy; blue blocker
Abstract In 2001 it was discovered that exposing the eyes to light in the blue end of the visible spectrum suppresses the production of the sleep hormone, melatonin. New mothers need to get up during the night to care for their babies. This is the time when melatonin is normally flowing. Exposing their eyes to light can cut off the flow. It may also reset their circadian (internal) clock. On subsequent nights the melatonin may not begin flowing at the normal time making it difficult to fall asleep. Over time, disruption of the circadian rhythm plus sleep deprivation may result in depression. Women suffering postpartum depression were enrolled in a small clinical trial. Some were provided with glasses and light bulbs that block blue light. Others were equipped with glasses and light bulbs that looked colored but did not block the rays causing melatonin suppression. Those with the “real glasses” recovered somewhat more quickly than those with the placebo glasses and light bulbs. The hypothesis that should be tested in large scale clinical trials is that the risk of postpartum depression can be reduced when a new mother avoids exposing her eyes to blue light when she gets up at night to care for her baby. In the meantime, all new mothers may benefit from using glasses and light bulbs that block blue light when getting up at night to care for their babies.
Address Postpartum Support, International P.O. Box 60931, Santa Barbara, CA 93160, USA
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ISSN 0306-9877 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19329259 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 296
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Author Entwistle, J.; Slater, D.
Title Making space for 'the social': connecting sociology and professional practices in urban lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The British Journal of Sociology Abbreviated Journal Br J Sociol
Volume (down) 70 Issue 5 Pages 2020-2041
Keywords Sociology; Society; Lighting
Abstract Lighting is increasingly recognized as a significant social intervention by both lighting professionals and academic social scientists. However, what counts as 'the social' is diverse and contested, with consequences for what kind of 'social' is performed or invented. Based on a long-term research programme, we argue that collaboration between sociologists and lighting professionals requires negotiating discourses and practices of 'the social'. This paper explores the quality and kinds of spaces made for 'the social' in professional practices and academic collaborations, focusing on two case studies of urban lighting that demonstrate how the space of 'the social' is constrained and impoverished by an institutionalized division between technical and aesthetic lighting. We consider the potential role of sociologists in making more productive spaces for 'the social' in urban design, as part of the central sociological task of 'inventing the social' (Marres, Guggenheim and Wilkie 2018) in the process of studying it.
Address Department of Sociology, London School of Economics; d.slater(at)lse.ac.uk
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Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-1315 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30864152 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2265
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