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Author DeNicholas, J. url  openurl
  Title LED lighting and light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Electronic Design Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 57 Issue 6 Pages 37  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1024  
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Author Roos, P.J. openurl 
  Title Kreative Außenbeleuchtung ohne Lichtsmog Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Licht: Planung, Design, Technik, Handel Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 57 Issue 5 Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1060  
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Author Babadi, S.; Ramirez-Inguiez, R.; Boutaleb, T.; Mallick, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Producing uniform illumination within a rectangular area by using a nonimaging optic Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl. Opt.  
  Volume (down) 57 Issue 31 Pages 9357  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract This paper proposes a new design method to create a novel optical element to generate uniform illumination within a rectangular area. Based on this model, an illuminated area is irradiated by two sets of rays; the first one irradiates the target plane after refraction from the top section of the lens, and the second one irradiates from the reflection at the side profile of the lens and then from refraction at the top part of the lens. The results show that a uniformity of over 90% can be achieved.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1559-128X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2046  
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Author Bullough, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spectral sensitivity for extrafoveal discomfort glare Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Modern Optics Abbreviated Journal Journal of Modern Optics  
  Volume (down) 56 Issue 13 Pages 1518-1522  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting  
  Abstract Previously published evidence suggests that the discomfort glare response to bright lights has greater short-wavelength spectral sensitivity than implied by the photopic luminous efficiency function, V(λ). The present paper summarizes a series of experiments to characterize spectral sensitivity for discomfort glare from nearly monochromatic light sources presented in the near extrafovea (5° and 10° off-axis). The results are consistent with increased participation in the discomfort glare response from short-wavelength cones and greater short-wavelength sensitivity as eccentricity increases. From the results an empirical family of luminous efficiency functions, V DG(λ), for discomfort glare, is derived. Such data could have implications for specifications of roadway lighting, vehicle headlamps or other light sources that might contribute to discomfort glare.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0950-0340 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1759  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Holt, L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature, extent and ecological implications of night‐time light from road vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 55 Issue 5 Pages 2296-2307  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract The erosion of night‐time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.

Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions.

The ecological impacts of light emissions from vehicle headlights are likely to be especially high because these are (1) focused so as to light roadsides at higher intensities than commonly experienced from other sources, and well above activation thresholds for many biological processes; (2) projected largely in a horizontal plane and thus can carry over long distances; (3) introduced into much larger areas of the landscape than experience street lighting; (4) typically broad “white” spectrum, which substantially overlaps the action spectra of many biological processes and (5) often experienced at roadsides as series of pulses of light (produced by passage of vehicles), a dynamic known to have major biological impacts.

The ecological impacts of road vehicle headlights will markedly increase with projected global growth in numbers of vehicles and the road network, increasing the local severity of emissions (because vehicle numbers are increasing faster than growth in the road network) and introducing emissions into areas from which they were previously absent. The effects will be further exacerbated by technological developments that are increasing the intensity of headlight emissions and the amounts of blue light in emission spectra.

Synthesis and applications. Emissions from vehicle headlights need to be considered as a major, and growing, source of ecological impacts of artificial night‐time lighting. It will be a significant challenge to minimise these impacts whilst balancing drivers' needs at night and avoiding risk and discomfort for other road users. Nonetheless, there is potential to identify solutions to these conflicts, both through the design of headlights and that of roads.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1841  
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