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Author Żagan, W.; Skarżyński, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The “layered method” – A third method of floodlighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The main aim of this work is to present a new method of floodlighting – the ‘Layered Method’. It has been possible to create this method due to the rapid development of linear luminaires with LEDs. When luminaires are located a very short distance from an illuminated wall and are directed at a low angle, the layered floodlighting method gives an unusual and interesting visual effect. In this situation, the length of light distribution on the illuminated wall is the same as the length of the light line and is rather short in width. This gives the opportunity of creating the effect of a layer of light, which can be used, for example, to illuminate Renaissance tenement houses and all types of longitudinal architectural details, such as tympanums or balusters. This paper presents the state-of-the-art use of the layered method of floodlighting. All advantages and disadvantages, in terms of lighting technology and architecture, are carefully described. The ideas contained in this paper could be useful for those who are interested in making architectural objects more beautiful by means of illumination at night-time.  
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  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2807  
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Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume (up) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom  
  Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
 
  Address Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835  
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Author Rahman, A.; Asyhari, A.T.; Obaidat, M.S.; Kurniawan, I.F.; Mukta, M.Y.; Vijayakumar, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title IoT-Enabled Light Intensity-Controlled Seamless Highway Lighting System Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication IEEE Systems Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Lighting; Economics  
  Abstract Motivated by enormous highway-lighting energy consumption, smart lighting development is crucial to better manage available resources. While existing literature focused on ensuring cost-effective lighting, an equally important requirement, namely the visual comfort of motorists, is almost disregarded. This article proposes a novel Internet of Things-enabled system that can be intelligently controlled according to the traffic demand. Cooperative relay-network architecture is the central element that leverages upon placement of cyber-enabled lampposts to allow for sensing-exchanging highway traffic information. Data accumulation is exploited to automate adaptive switching on/off the lighting and provide backtracking detection of faulty lampposts. From the service provider’s perspective, we envision to deploy low-cost highly durable sensing and network components to significantly cut down the operating cost. From the road user’s perspective, the relay-network is envisaged to provide seamless driving experience where sufficient lighting is always perceived along the road. A critical analysis quantitatively evaluates the seamless driving experience considering car arrival rate, outage probability, and device malfunction probability. A road occupancy-based cost estimation analysis demonstrates the effective cost reduction of the proposal compared to existing systems. Furthermore, the performance of chosen communication modules under different setups is assessed through simulation, suggesting appropriate protocol for different highway traffic conditions.  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2897  
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Author Gerhardsson, K.M.; Laike, T.; Johansson, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Leaving lights on – A conscious choice or wasted light? Use of indoor lighting in Swedish homes Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (up) in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Psychology; Lighting  
  Abstract Promoting resource- and energy-efficient home lighting through technology and behaviour change requires an understanding of how residents currently use lighting and what they want from it. However, users' needs and desires relating to lighting in homes are poorly understood, as research is still limited. This paper aims to provide a fuller picture of residents' experiences with their home lighting. Interviews about how residents perceive the character of lighting and luminaires and lighting use suggest that home lighting has nine capabilities: to enable vision; to facilitate visual tasks; to display objects; to send a message; to support a particular atmosphere; to shape the architectural space; to offer a visual aesthetic experience; to maintain or change rhythmicity; and to evoke memories. Secondary data confirmed five of them. The identified capabilities relate to behavioural goals, psychological wellbeing and social needs. We conclude that seemingly wasted light in people's homes, i.e. lights left on in unoccupied rooms, can serve a purpose for the residents, such as avoiding visual or aesthetic discomfort, making the home inviting, benefitting people outside and providing safety. Findings have implications for the further development of new lighting technologies and design, energy-saving campaigns targeting residents and for urban outdoor environments.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2898  
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Author Wieduwilt, A.; Alsat, E.A.; Blickwedel, J.; Strizek, B.; Di Battista, C.; Lachner, A.B.; Plischke, H.; Melaku, T.; Muller, A.; Bagci, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dramatically altered environmental lighting conditions in women with high-risk pregnancy during hospitalization Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume (up) in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Human Health; Pregnant women; circadian rhythm; color temperatures; hospital light environmental; illuminance; indoor  
  Abstract The maternal circadian time structure is incredibly important in the entrainment and programing of the fetal and newborn circadian time structure. Natural sunlight is the primary environmental time cue for entrainment of circadian rhythms, but high-risk pregnant women spend most of their time indoors with artificial light sources and extremely low levels of natural light both during the day and night. Because the daily level, timing, duration of light exposure and its spectral properties are important in maintaining the normal circadian physiology in humans, we aimed to evaluate the environmental lighting conditions in high-risk pregnant women admitted to hospital for long-term stay. About 30 patients were included in the study. Exposed illuminance, color temperature and effective circadian radiation dose were measured and recorded every 10 s by light dosimeters attached to the patients' clothing. We documented the illuminance of 29 pregnant women on 235 inpatient days. Median (IQR) measured illuminance was 70 (28-173) lux in the morning, 124 (63-241) lux in the afternoon, 19 (6-53) lux in the evening and 0 (0-0) lux at the night. Median illuminance for the 235 inpatient days of assessment was below the recommended EU standard of 100 lux-60.5% of the mornings and 42.7% of the afternoons. The women confined to indoor locations rarely achieved an illuminances more than 300 lux in the morning and in the afternoon. Compared to women with outdoor mobility, those confined indoors have a significantly lower illuminance and color temperature, both in the morning and in the afternoon. Our study presents the first information about the dramatically altered environmental lighting conditions experienced by high-risk pregnant women during their hospital stay. Their exposure to light while in the hospital is significantly lower than exposure to natural daylight levels and below the recommended EU standard.  
  Address Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine, Children's Hospital, University of Bonn , Bonn, Germany  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32752886 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3061  
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